This research delves into the design, properties, and installation procedures of Ductile Iron (DI) water pipe systems. Through an in-depth investigation, the study aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the subject matter, focusing on the major components, their dimensions, handling, and maintenance processes involved in these systems.
Ductile Iron (DI) water pipe systems form the backbone of water distribution in residential, commercial, and industrial structures. These pressure pipe systems demonstrate adaptability to existing underground or above ground obstructions, making them more flexible than gravity pipe systems. The depth of these water mains and service laterals varies significantly depending on climate conditions and existing obstructions.
This chapter elucidates the dimensions and design of DI water pipe systems. It explains that available sizes range from 4″ to 64″, with pipe lengths predominantly being 20′, although 14′ lengths may also be available. The study further investigates the depth placement, indicating that water mains are typically placed at least 6″ below the lowest recorded frost depth.
In this chapter, the properties of DI water pipes are explored. The research underscores that pipe deflection is of negligible concern with ductile iron due to its high strength, unlike plastic water main pipes. Moreover, DI pipes commonly have a cement-lined interior, which contributes to their durability and performance.
The Ductile Iron Pipe adheres to the ISO 2531, EN545, and EN598 standards. The pipe classifications include K9, C40, C30, and C25.
The pipe offers varying joint types, such as push-on joint (Tyton joint), K type joint, and self-restrained joint.
Typically, the effective length of the pipe is 6m for bulk shipment and 5.7m for container shipment.
The internal lining of the pipe is crafted with cement mortar as per ISO4179 standards.
The pipe features a zinc coating of at least 130g/m2 as per ISO 8179 standards and bitumen painting of at least 70um as per ISO 8179 standards.
The gaskets can be NBR rubber, natural rubber, SBR rubber, or EPDM rubber ring in accordance with ISO4633.
The pipe’s diameter ranges from DN80 to DN2600.
The pipe possesses high strength, is lighter than gray iron, exhibits good corrosion resistance, and does not fur. It also has minor flow resistance, easy installation, and has a significant lifespan.
The pipe is scrutinized through automatic inspection equipment.
The chemical composition of the pipe is as follows:
The mechanical properties of the pipe are as follows:
The pipe undergoes various processes and tests, including:
The pipe coating can be customized according to specific needs. Some of the options include zinc-aluminum alloy and PU, among others.
|All specifications products can be customized according to customer requirements|
|Product name||Ductile iron pipe|
|Material:||Ductile Cast Iron GGG50|
|Pressure:||PN10, PN16, PN25,PN40|
|Class:||K9, K8, C25, C30, C40|
|Length:||6m, cut to 5.7m|
|Internal Coating:||a). Portland cement mortar lining|
|b). Sulphate Resistant cement mortar lining|
|c). High-Aluminum cement mortar lining|
|d). Fusion bonded epoxy coating|
|e). Liquid epoxy painting|
|f). Black bitumen painting|
|External Coating:||a). zinc+bitumen(70microns) painting|
|b). Fusion bonded epoxy coating|
|c). Zinc-aluminum alloy+liquid epoxy painting|
|Standard:||ISO2531, EN545, EN598, etc|
|Packing:||Bundles, in bulk, Pack according to customer requirements|
|Application:||Water supply project, drainage, sewage, irrigation, water pipeline.etc|
This chapter provides insight into the handling and inventory management of DI water pipes. It details the process followed from the moment the delivery truck arrives, including the inspection, inventorying, and unloading processes. The study also discusses the storage and handling precautions to be taken under different weather conditions.
This section details the trench and cover installation procedures for DI water pipes. It discusses the trench width determination, the use of ‘full profile’ trench boxes for trench wall shoring, and the methods for replacing larger sections of the pipe. It also outlines the repair procedures for damaged pipes.
This chapter delves into the jointing systems of DI water pipes, explaining the use of molded synthetic rubber gaskets for a water-tight push together jointing system. It elaborates on the installation process, including the cleaning, lubrication, and insertion of the bell, gasket, and spigot. The study highlights that more joint deflection is allowed with DI pipes than plastic pipes.
The final chapter examines the use of fittings in DI water pipe systems. It discusses the types of fittings available for DI pipes, particularly focusing on ‘Mechanical Joint’ fittings, which are typically available in sizes up to 48” and in working pressures of 150, 250, and 350psi.
In this chapter, the study examines the construction and coating of Megalugs. They are typically used in conjunction with ‘Wedge-Action Restraint’ devices at the joint and are composed of a ‘gland’, torque-limiting bolts/nuts, and ‘T-Bolts/nuts. The chapter also explains the coating of Megalugs for corrosion/impact/UV resistance.
This chapter delves into the installation process of Megalugs in DI water pipe systems. It provides a step-by-step guide on the installation process, including the preparation of the spigot end, the use of a lubricant, and the tightening of bolts.
The fourth chapter discusses the assembly required for service connections to the main, focusing on Compression Fittings and Flared Connection. It emphasizes the rule of thumb for ductile iron pipe services and the need for a tapping ‘saddle’.
This chapter focuses on the necessity of thrust blocking when installing ductile iron pipe and fittings. It explores the use of cast-in-place concrete or precast concrete blocks for thrust blocking and explains the need for additional joint restraint in certain situations.
In this chapter, the study examines the cutting process of ductile iron pipes. It provides a comprehensive guide on how to make a ‘square’ cut and the need for a ‘bevel’ to fit into the taper inside the bell. The chapter also discusses the marking of a new insertion or ‘home’ line on the cut end.
This chapter focuses on the structure connections in DI water pipe systems, specifically when an in-line valve and manhole are required. The study explores two common connection types: mortared and booted, and explains the circumstances under which each connection is used.
The final chapter investigates the backfill techniques used in DI water pipe systems. It explains the selection of trench backfill material depending on whether the pipe resides underneath or within the ‘zone-of-influence’ of pavement or a structure foundation.
The study concludes by summarizing the significant findings about the design, properties, and installation procedures of DI water pipe systems. It emphasizes the adaptability, strength, and durability of DI pipes, making them a reliable option for water distribution systems in diverse settings.