abter steel pipe manufacturer, natural gas casing and tubing,seamless steel pipe,OCTG, https://www.abtersteel.com OCTG pipe,carbon steel pipe,seamless steel pipe ,erw pipe Thu, 19 May 2022 07:46:42 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=4.9.8 Examples of steel pipe pile construction methods https://www.abtersteel.com/1/examples-of-steel-pipe-pile-construction-methods/ Thu, 19 May 2022 07:25:00 +0000 http://www.abtersteel.com/?p=6483 4.1 Drum-type diesel hammer impact pile driving method (1) The method of “heavy hammer and low strike” should be adopted for piling. (2) The pile frame generally adopts a 3-point support crawler pile driver. (3) The elevation of the pile top of the steel pipe pile in the piling sequence is often buried below the natural ground according to the design. During construction, it can be adopted: @ excavate the soil to the design elevation of the pile top before piling; ② The pile top is driven to the natural ground, and then the pipe is cut To the design […]

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4.1 Drum-type diesel hammer impact pile driving method

(1) The method of “heavy hammer and low strike” should be adopted for piling.

(2) The pile frame generally adopts a 3-point support crawler pile driver.

(3) The elevation of the pile top of the steel pipe pile in the piling sequence is often buried below the natural ground according to the design. During construction, it can be adopted: @ excavate the soil to the design elevation of the pile top before piling; ② The pile top is driven to the natural ground, and then the pipe is cut To the design elevation of the pile top, then excavate the soil; ③ After the pile is sent to the design elevation of the pile top, the soil is excavated;

When the soil is weak, it is difficult to dig the soil first and then piling; or when the pile is relatively long, the hammering energy is large when the pile feeding method is used, and the predetermined depth may not be driven; or when the engineering geology is complex and the bearing layer elevation fluctuates, Method 2 can be used. For short piles or when the piling resistance is small, the piles can be sent to the pile top elevation, and the pile delivery depth is generally controlled at 5-7m (the eighth method). When precipitation measures are available and the soil quality at the design elevation of the pile top is good, the first method can be used.

According to the flow method, the piling sequence is considered, and in principle, it is carried out according to “first group piles and then single piles”, “deep first and then shallow”, “large and then small”, and “deviation from environmental protection objects”.

(4) Penetration of the middle layer Generally speaking, the situation of opening 11 steel pipe piles to penetrate the hard middle layer is as follows: the gravel layer with a CN value of 50 or more is often impossible to penetrate when the thickness is 5m. ②The viscous layer with N value above 30, when the thickness is 2~3m, generally cannot penetrate; if the N value is less than 30, it may penetrate between 5~-6m. 3 For the sand layer, it is easy to penetrate when the particle size is the same, and it is difficult to penetrate when the particle gradation is good. When the lower layer of the middle layer is weak, it is easy to penetrate even if the middle layer is slightly hard. When the depth of the middle layer is up to 20m, it is easy to penetrate, but when the depth is 25~30m, it cannot penetrate. 6 When it cannot be penetrated, the middle excavation method or the pre-drilling method can be used, and the penetration becomes easy. ⑦ When the middle layer is used as the bearing layer at the pile end, the consolidation settlement of the lower layer should be considered. In the above cases, there are some differences depending on the diameter of the pile and the size of the hammer. Compared with the open pile of the same diameter, the ability of the closed pile to penetrate the middle layer is reduced by 1/4~1/2 with the same pile hammer.

(5) After connecting the pile, the lower section of the pile sinks to the point where the top of the pile is 0.5~0.8m away from the ground, and then the strike is suspended. Check whether the top of the lower section of the pile is deformed. If there is any damage, it can be repaired with a jack, etc. Oil stains and other attachments that are harmful to welding. If the upper section pile is deformed, it needs to be repaired and then erected. On-site joint welding needs to be cooled for 1 minute before piling operation. (6) When the pile-feeding shaft is used for pile driving, there should be no discontinuous surface between the pile feeding shaft and the pile top, otherwise the pile top will move laterally during driving, and the transmission of the shock wave will be unstable, which often causes the penetration of the pile. Enter impossible.

(7) The reference standard for stopping hammering of piles, as shown in Table 3.

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Steel Pipe Piles Overview and Construction Method https://www.abtersteel.com/1/steel-pipe-piles-overview-and-construction-method/ Mon, 09 May 2022 01:16:58 +0000 http://www.abtersteel.com/?p=6473 1 Overview For more than half a century, steel pipe piles have gradually become one of the main types of piles in foundation engineering. Steel pipe piles are widely used in Shanghai, my country, and some deep-water wharves, Baoshan iron and steel plants, power plants and dozens of high-rise buildings are all based on steel pipe piles. 2 Advantages and disadvantages of steel pipe piles (1) Advantages: Good driving resistance, that is, it can withstand a strong impact force when it is driven into the soil, has a strong ability to penetrate the hard soil layer, and can effectively drive […]

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1 Overview

For more than half a century, steel pipe piles have gradually become one of the main types of piles in foundation engineering. Steel pipe piles are widely used in Shanghai, my country, and some deep-water wharves, Baoshan iron and steel plants, power plants and dozens of high-rise buildings are all based on steel pipe piles. 2 Advantages and disadvantages of steel pipe piles

(1) Advantages: Good driving resistance, that is, it can withstand a strong impact force when it is driven into the soil, has a strong ability to penetrate the hard soil layer, and can effectively drive into the hard pile end bearing layer, so it can be expected to obtain a considerable The vertical bearing capacity is suitable for foundation piles of tall, heavy, large and construction (structure) buildings; ②The horizontal bearing capacity is large, suitable for construction (structure) subjected to horizontal forces such as earthquake force, wave force and earth pressure. The foundation piles of buildings; ③ There are many types of outer diameters and wall thicknesses, so it is convenient to choose the appropriate pile size; ④ From the construction point of view, it is easy to change the pile length according to the different bearing layers of the pile ends, and the reliability of on-site welding is high. The pile foundation is easy to connect with the superstructure, and the amount of soil squeezed by the open pile is less, so it will not have adverse effects on the adjacent existing buildings;

(2) The disadvantage is high cost; ② It is not economical when used as a short friction pile or a pile that does not bear horizontal force; ③ When the hammer-type pile driving is used, the noise and vibration are high; ④ When the large diameter open pile is used , the occlusion effect is not good enough.

2 Steel pipe pile construction method

2.1 Classification and characteristics of steel pipe pile construction methods

Steel pipe pile construction methods can be divided into three categories: driven pile construction method, buried pile construction method and pressed pile construction method, and there are more than 20 kinds of subdivisions. Characteristics of steel pipe pile construction method (see Table 1)

2.2 Selection principle of steel pipe pile construction method

When choosing the construction method of steel pipe piles, consideration should be given to: the requirements of the building; ② the environmental conditions of the construction site; ③ the hydrogeological conditions of the construction stratum; Whether the selected construction method has soil drainage or mud sewage treatment, etc.

3 steel pipe specifications

3.1 Classification of steel pipes

Steel pipes can be divided into two categories: seamless steel pipes and welded steel pipes. The commonly used steel pipe piles are electric-welded steel pipes, of which spiral steel pipes account for the majority; high-frequency resistance-welded steel pipes are only used for small diameter steel pipe piles (outer diameter below 609.6mm, wall thickness below 16mm); U.O.E. steel pipes and coiled steel pipes Used for steel pipe piles with larger diameters or larger wall thicknesses. The dimensions and characteristics of various steel pipes are shown in Table 2.

3.2 For the dimensions, quality and tolerances of single-section steel pipes, see Reference [1].

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Double-layer lined screening pipe&Sand-control screening pipe for oil well https://www.abtersteel.com/news/products-news/double-layer-lined-screening-pipesand-control-screening-pipe-for-oil-well/ Mon, 25 Apr 2022 06:22:07 +0000 http://www.abtersteel.com/?p=6466 Double-layer lined screening pipe      The double-layer lined screening pipe is composed of a base pipe of API standard, a double-layer high precision wedge wire filter pipe and lined filter material in between.   Characteristics of the product:   1.High-precision screening gap can effectively control sand and act as a protective medium.     2.The use of double-layer lined screening pipe can reduce diameter of drilling hole, save drilling time, and reduce drilling cost.     3. The use of double-layer lined screening pipe can reduce the workload of operators, and improve the success rate of drilling.     4.Filter material can be […]

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  • Double-layer lined screening pipe
  •      The double-layer lined screening pipe is composed of a base pipe of API standard, a double-layer high precision wedge wire filter pipe and lined filter material in between.  
    Characteristics of the product:
      1.High-precision screening gap can effectively control sand and act as a protective medium.  
      2.The use of double-layer lined screening pipe can reduce diameter of drilling hole, save drilling time, and reduce drilling cost.  
      3. The use of double-layer lined screening pipe can reduce the workload of operators, and improve the success rate of drilling.  
      4.Filter material can be selected to effectively inhibit microbial ceramic particles, or standard sand and resin particles.  
      5.By adjusting the screening gap, leakage of filter material can be effectively prevented, and the service life prolonged.  
      6.In the long run, double-layer lined screening pipe brings lower operating costs for customers.  
      7.Base pipe meeting API standard can be built inside according to the requirements for use to increase the overall bearing capacity of the screening pipe, so as to be used in deeper strata.  
       Application environment: It is fit for vertical wells, inclined wells, directional wells and most wells as well as deep wells and strata in special environments.

    2. Sand-control screening pipe for oil well

            A sand-control screening pipe for oil well is composed of a base pipe of API standard and a high precision water filter pipe.
    Characteristics of the product:
      1.It has strong pressure bearing capacity. With the support of the inner-layer base pipe, even if external filter pipe is deformed partially, the gap will not increase, and sand control performance will be more reliable. It is fit for a harsh service environment.
      2.The gap of the outer-layer screening pipe is uniform, the error is as small as 0.05mm, which can control sand effectively.  
      3.Gap density of the screening pipe is better than other screening pipes, which reduces the flow resistance and greatly improves the oil and gas yield.  
      4.Pipe diameter is smaller, which reduces the difficulty of drilling construction.  
      5.Continuous V-shaped structure reduces the water penetration speed and alleviates the pressure on the pipe body and the equipment.  
      6.Materials of the base pipe is J55, K55, N80, etc of API standard, those of the outer-layer screening pipe is 304 stainless steel, and other materials can also be used in accordance with the customer’s requirements as well.  
      Application environment: 1000-meters deep wells, oil wells, geothermal wells and strata with poor construction conditions.  

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    Hole-drilled pipe&Water filter pipe for geothermal well&Water filter pipe of air-conditioning well https://www.abtersteel.com/news/products-news/hole-drilled-pipewater-filter-pipe-for-geothermal-wellwater-filter-pipe-of-air-conditioning-well/ Mon, 18 Apr 2022 07:20:06 +0000 http://www.abtersteel.com/?p=6454 Hole-drilled pipe We supply hole-drilled pipes of various specifications and materials and provide hole-drilling services, and you are welcome to call and inquire us! Diameter of hole-drilled pipe:114mm,127mm,140mm,168mm,178mm,219mm,245mm,273mm,325mm,406mm,426mm,530mm,630mm。 Materials of hole-drilled pipe: Stainless steel, carbon steel, J55,N80,and L80. 2. Water filter pipe for geothermal well                  A geothermal well filter pipe is composed of a base pipe of API standard and a wire-wound filter pipe of high precision.   Characteristics of the product:   1.It has strong pressure bearing capacity. With the support of the inner-layer base pipe, even if external filter pipe is […]

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  • Hole-drilled pipe

    We supply hole-drilled pipes of various specifications and materials and provide hole-drilling services, and you are welcome to call and inquire us!
    Diameter of hole-drilled pipe:114mm,127mm,140mm,168mm,178mm,219mm,245mm,273mm,325mm,406mm,426mm,530mm,630mm。
    Materials of hole-drilled pipe: Stainless steel, carbon steel, J55,N80,and L80.

    2. Water filter pipe for geothermal well

                     A geothermal well filter pipe is composed of a base pipe of API standard and a wire-wound filter pipe of high precision.  
    Characteristics of the product:
      1.It has strong pressure bearing capacity. With the support of the inner-layer base pipe, even if external filter pipe is deformed partially, the gap will not increase, and sand control performance will be more reliable. It is fit for a harsh service environment.
      2.The gap of the outer-layer screening pipe is uniform, the error is as small as 0.05mm, which can control sand effectively.  
      3.Gap density of the screening pipe is better than other screening pipes, which reduces the flow resistance and greatly improves the water yield.  
      4.Continuous V-shaped structure reduces the water penetration speed and alleviates the pressure on the pipe body and the equipment.  
      5.Pipe diameter is smaller, which reduces the difficulty of drilling construction.  
      6.Materials of the base pipe is J55, K55, N80, etc of API standard, those of the outer-layer screening pipe is 304 stainless steel or high quality low carbon steel, and other materials can also be used in accordance with the customer’s requirements as well.  

    3.Water filter pipe of air-conditioning well

            The water filter pipe for air conditioning produced by our company is specially designed for water source heat pump system. It is used for water intake and recharge of water source heat pump well. This product has the following characteristics:  
      1.High porosity. The porosity of this product is over 25%. High porosity can reduce water flow penetration speed, reduce the flow resistance, not only improves the effect of water intake and recharge, but also saves the energy consumption of water pumping and recharge.  
      2.The gap is not be easily blocked. The gap structure is narrow outside and wide inside, and the gap will not be blocked by sand and stone, which prolongs the service life of the air conditioning well.
      3.The pressure-bearing capacity of the pipe body is big. There is no weld on the surface of this product. Compared with other welded pipes, it has a higher ability to bear pressure.  
      4.Sand control effect is good. The gap control of this product is accurate, the error is small, outer-layer filter and sand particles can be effectively prevented into the well, and the loss of water pump equipment can be reduced.  
      5.Convenient for construction. Compared with bridge pipe and cement pipe, this product is light in quality, convenient for being put into the well and the risk and other unsafe factors brought by construction can be reduced.  
      6.Diversified materials. The pipe body is made of galvanized carbon steel, plastic sprayed carbon steel and stainless steel. Excellent material makes the pipe and filter material never stick with each other, which effectively ensure long-term permeability.  

    Note: The above is the common specification, we can design for outer diameter, gap and porosity according to the customer’s requirement to meet the customer’s needs for use.

     

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    Wire-wound water filter pipe https://www.abtersteel.com/news/products-news/wire-wound-water-filter-pipe/ Tue, 12 Apr 2022 05:10:57 +0000 http://www.abtersteel.com/?p=6446 Wire-wound water filter pipe A wire-wound water filter pipe is made by welding wedge winding wire and wedge bar (or round bar) at each crossing point. Characteristics of the product: 1.Wire-wound water filter pipe features firm structure, high porosity and accurate size of gap. It is specially fit for fine sand and silt strata of wells.   2.The opening area of the wire-wound water filter pipe is large, and its filtration area is high up to 60%.     3.Wedge-shaped design prevents screening pipe from being blocked and makes it easier for backwash.   4. The larger filtration area makes it easier for […]

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  • Wire-wound water filter pipe
  • A wire-wound water filter pipe is made by welding wedge winding wire and wedge bar (or round bar) at each crossing point.

    Characteristics of the product:

    1.Wire-wound water filter pipe features firm structure, high porosity and accurate size of gap. It is specially fit for fine sand and silt strata of wells.
      2.The opening area of the wire-wound water filter pipe is large, and its filtration area is high up to 60%.  
      3.Wedge-shaped design prevents screening pipe from being blocked and makes it easier for backwash.
      4. The larger filtration area makes it easier for groundwater to penetrate into the well so as to obtain abundant water, reduce the depth of water level, hence reduce energy consumption.
      5.The larger filtration area can relatively reduce the pressure of water infiltration, avoid sand particles entering into the well pipe under larger pressure, thus reducing the friction between sand particles and the equipment, reduce wear, and improve the service life of the equipment.  
      6.With the same length, diameter and gap, the flow rate of wire-wound filter pipe is 3 times that of bridge filter pipe and 9 times that of slotted filter pipe.
      7.The customer can choose gap size of the screening pipe freely between 0.1mm-6mm to meet different construction conditions.  
      Materials of filter pipe: They are mainly stainless steel, galvanized carbon steel, plastic sprayed carbon steel or other materials required by the customer.  
      Application environment: It is fit for gravel packing and sand control in most wells such as vertical wells, inclined wells and directional wells.  
      Connection type: Groove connection or thread connection  

    Specification

     

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    Basic knowledge of steel pipe varieties and standards https://www.abtersteel.com/news/products-news/basic-knowledge-of-steel-pipe-varieties-and-standards/ Wed, 06 Apr 2022 05:48:04 +0000 http://www.abtersteel.com/?p=6440 1. Basic knowledge of steel pipe standards 1. Standards: Standards are repetitive things with diversity-related characteristics in economic and technological activities. On the basis of summarizing the comprehensive results of scientific technology and practical experience, they are fully negotiated by relevant parties, and are issued in specific procedures and specific forms. Uniform and guiding regulations that must be complied with within a certain range. 2. Classification of steel pipe product standards: a) According to the promulgating agency, it is divided into: national standard (GB or GB/T), industry standard (such as YB or YB/T), enterprise standard (Henggang enterprise standard code is […]

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    1. Basic knowledge of steel pipe standards
    1. Standards: Standards are repetitive things with diversity-related characteristics in economic and technological activities. On the basis of summarizing the comprehensive results of scientific technology and practical experience, they are fully negotiated by relevant parties, and are issued in specific procedures and specific forms. Uniform and guiding regulations that must be complied with within a certain range.
    2. Classification of steel pipe product standards:
    a) According to the promulgating agency, it is divided into: national standard (GB or GB/T), industry standard (such as YB or YB/T), enterprise standard (Henggang enterprise standard code is Q/OHAD), international standard (ISO), American standard Standards (such as: API American Petroleum Industry Association, ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials, ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers), German Industrial Standard (DIN), Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS), British Standard (BS), European Standard (EN), CSA (Canada), DNV (Norway), Russian Standard (GOST), French Standard (NF), etc.
    b) According to the standard legal attributes, it is divided into: mandatory standards and recommended standards. Mandatory standards are related to the safety of personal equipment and must be strictly implemented. When signing technical agreements for products produced according to mandatory standards, the terms of the agreement must not be lower than the mandatory standards; recommended standards, the state encourages enterprises to voluntarily adopt them. When the technical agreement of the product produced by the recommended standard is adopted, the terms of the agreement may be lower than, equal to or higher than the recommended standard. At present, there are 5 mandatory standards for seamless steel tubes, namely: GB3087-2008 “Seamless Steel Tubes for Low and Medium Pressure Boilers”, GB5310-2008 “Seamless Steel Tubes for High Pressure Boilers”, GB6479-2000 “Seamless Steel Tubes for High Pressure Fertilizer Equipment” Steel Pipe”, GB9948-2006 “Seamless Steel Pipe for Petroleum Cracking”, GB18248-2000 “Seamless Steel Pipe for Gas Cylinder”.
    c) According to the level, it is divided into: international advanced level (Y), international general level (I), domestic average advanced level (H).
    3. The meaning of the standard code
    The standard code is referred to as the standard number. The standard number is composed of four parts: the code of the promulgating agency, the serial number of the legal attribute code, and the date of issuance.
    4. The composition of steel pipe standards
    The content of steel pipe standards generally consists of nine parts, including preface, scope, normative reference documents, dimensions, shape and weight, technical requirements, inspection rules for inspection methods, packaging mark quality certificates, and appendices. The core part is the size, shape, weight, and technical requirements.
    Dimensions and weight usually include nominal outer diameter, nominal wall thickness, allowable deviation of outer diameter and wall thickness, theoretical weight per meter, length range, end shape, curvature, etc. Some standards also include allowable deviation of inner diameter, ovality, uneven wall thickness, allowable deviation of weight, etc.
    Technical requirements generally include, grade, chemical composition, manufacturing method, delivery state, mechanical properties, process performance, metallographic structure, surface quality and non-destructive testing.
    2. Common terms of steel pipe standards

    1. Nominal size and actual size
    Nominal size is the nominal size specified in the standard, which is the ideal size expected in the production process, but in actual production, the actual size of the steel pipe is often larger or smaller than the nominal size, and the actual size is called the actual size.
    2. Deviations and Tolerances
    A difference is allowed between the actual size specified in the standard and the nominal size, which is called deviation. If the difference is positive, it is called positive deviation, and if the difference is negative, it is called negative deviation. The absolute sum of positive and negative deviations specified in the standard is called tolerance, also called tolerance zone. There are absolute deviations and relative deviations.
    3. Delivery length
    1) Usual length: also known as indeterminate length. In the same steel pipe standard, the length of hot-rolled pipe and cold-drawn pipe is usually different, which is caused by the capacity of the unit.
    2) Fixed length: cut to a fixed length according to the order requirements. Should be within the usual length range, generally allow positive deviation without negative deviation.
    3) Multiple ruler length: an integer multiple of a certain length (single ruler) cut according to the order requirements. The length and multiple of the single ruler should be indicated in the contract, and the incision allowance and the deviation of the length of the multiple ruler should be considered when calculating the total length of the multiple ruler.
    4) Short ruler: The length is less than the lower limit of the usual length in the standard, but not less than the minimum length allowed in the standard. Manufacturers should try to avoid the generation of short-length pipes. More and more current steel pipe standards stipulate that short-length pipes are not allowed to overlap.
    5) Ruler length: also known as range length. The range of caliper lengths is narrower than usual. Some foreign standards stipulate the length of the ruler, but there is no concept of the length of the ruler in our country. If the user requires delivery in full length, the full range should be indicated in the contract. For example, the first-level length, second-level length, and third-level length in API 5CT are full-length lengths. The length of the ruler is not allowed to deviate.
    4. Ovality (out-of-roundness): The ovality of the steel pipe refers to the difference between the maximum outer diameter and the minimum outer diameter on the same section, Dmax-Dmin.
    5. Bending degree: the degree of unevenness of the steel pipe in the length direction. Partial curvature (also called curvature per meter) and total curvature.
    6. Smelting composition and finished product composition: The smelting composition of steel refers to the chemical composition in the middle of casting after the steel is smelted. Finished composition refers to the chemical composition on finished steel, including billets. The finished product composition and smelting composition of the same furnace are allowed to have a deviation, which is stipulated in GB/T222. At present, there are GB/T222-1984 “Sampling method for chemical analysis of steel and allowable deviation of finished chemical composition” and GB/T222-1984. There are two parallel (excessive) versions of T222-2006 “Tolerable Deviation of Finished Chemical Composition of Steel”. The general situation is that the old version is stricter than the new version. The domestic product standards formulated and revised before 2006 refer to the 84th edition in the normative reference documents (GB/T222-2006 can also be used without the date), and the standards formulated and revised after 2006 are divided into three cases , one is to specify GB/T222-1984, the other is to specify GB/T222-2006, and the third is to write only GB/T222, which means to use the latest version of GB/T222. (Some standards and users specify the 84 version, in addition to which the 2006 version can be executed. Of course, our internal advocacy is to strictly control the ingredients). The sampling regulations in the 84th edition have separately formulated GB/T20066-2006 “Sampling and sample preparation methods for samples for the determination of chemical composition of steel and iron”.

    7. Tensile strength, yield strength, elongation
    The latest domestic standard GB/T228-2002 “Metal Materials Metal Tensile Test Method” stipulates that the tensile strength symbol is Rm; the yield strength is divided into upper yield strength ReH and lower yield strength Rel, as well as Rt0.5 and Rp0.2. The unit of tensile strength and yield strength is MPa. 1MPa=1N/mm2, 1bar=100KPa=0.1MPa. The elongation symbol is A, and the unit is %. Foreign product standards include proportional samples and non-proportional samples (calibration distance). Some foreign standards stipulate that the wall thickness is reduced, and the elongation can also be reduced, which should be fully paid attention to when judging the quality.
    8. Impact energy: the work absorbed by a sample of specified shape and size when broken under one impact test force. The commonly used impact tests are U-type and V-type specimens. The so-called U-shape and V-shape refer to the notch shape. V-type samples include full-size samples (height x width) 10mm x 10mm, 3/4-size samples 10mm x 7.5mm, half-size samples 10mm x 5mm, or other smaller size samples, and you should pay attention to their conversion relation. The impact also includes longitudinal impact and lateral impact, try to use large size specimens. The API 5CT standard specifies that impact specimens require the use of transverse specimens first and then larger specimens. The re-inspection of unqualified impact energy of domestic products shall be carried out according to GB/T2102-1988 or GB/T2102-2006.
    9. Hardness: the ability to resist the indentation of hard objects on the surface. Divided into Brinell hardness (HB), Rockwell hardness (HRB, HRC), etc.
    10. Process performance: It is used to test the applicability of the quality of the steel pipe in the subsequent processing and manufacturing process. Commonly used process properties include water pressure, flattening, bending, flaring, and crimping tests.
    11. Steel grade: The performance index of steel is used as the representation method of its code. Usually expressed as the lower limit of yield strength. Such as Q345 (A, B, C, D, E), L245, N80, S135 (135,000PSi)
    12. Delivery status: the final plastic deformation processing or final heat treatment status of the delivered steel pipe. The commonly used delivery states of steel pipes are: hot rolling, annealing, normalizing, normalizing + tempering, quenching + tempering (also known as quenching and tempering) Annealing: the workpiece is slowly heated to a certain temperature, cooled for a period of time, and then A heat treatment process in which the furnace is slowly cooled, also known as furnace cooling, and normalizing is to take out the heated workpiece and cool it in the air, which is called air cooling. Quenching is to heat the workpiece and put it in a quenching agent for cooling, and tempering is to heat the workpiece at a lower temperature and then cool it after quenching.
    13. Batch: According to the prescribed principles, a certain number of steel pipes are formed into an inspection unit and become an inspection batch. The batch referred to in the standard is an inspection batch, not a delivery batch or a production batch. Note: Some foreign standards and domestic standards formulated after 2008 stipulate that if the steel pipe is not heat treated after being cut into a single piece, all pipe sections cut from a steel pipe rolled from a billet should be regarded as one.

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    Steel pipe standards and basic knowledge https://www.abtersteel.com/news/products-news/steel-pipe-standards-and-basic-knowledge/ Tue, 29 Mar 2022 08:17:00 +0000 http://www.abtersteel.com/?p=6426 1. Basic knowledge of steel pipe standards 1. Standards: Standards are repetitive things with diversity-related characteristics in economic and technological activities. On the basis of summarizing the comprehensive results of scientific technology and practical experience, they are fully negotiated by relevant parties, and are issued in specific procedures and specific forms. Uniform and guiding regulations that must be complied with within a certain range. 2. Classification of steel pipe product standards: a) According to the promulgating agency, it is divided into: national standard (GB or GB/T), industry standard (such as YB or YB/T), enterprise standard (Henggang enterprise standard code is […]

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    1. Basic knowledge of steel pipe standards
    1. Standards: Standards are repetitive things with diversity-related characteristics in economic and technological activities. On the basis of summarizing the comprehensive results of scientific technology and practical experience, they are fully negotiated by relevant parties, and are issued in specific procedures and specific forms. Uniform and guiding regulations that must be complied with within a certain range.
    2. Classification of steel pipe product standards:
    a) According to the promulgating agency, it is divided into: national standard (GB or GB/T), industry standard (such as YB or YB/T), enterprise standard (Henggang enterprise standard code is Q/OHAD), international standard (ISO), American standard Standards (such as: API American Petroleum Industry Association, ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials, ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers), German Industrial Standard (DIN), Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS), British Standard (BS), European Standard (EN), CSA (Canada), DNV (Norway), Russian Standard (GOST), French Standard (NF), etc.
    b) According to the standard legal attributes, it is divided into: mandatory standards and recommended standards. Mandatory standards are related to the safety of personal equipment and must be strictly implemented. When signing technical agreements for products produced according to mandatory standards, the terms of the agreement must not be lower than the mandatory standards; recommended standards, the state encourages enterprises to voluntarily adopt them. When the technical agreement of the product produced by the recommended standard is adopted, the terms of the agreement may be lower than, equal to or higher than the recommended standard. At present, there are 5 mandatory standards for seamless steel tubes, namely: GB3087-2008 “Seamless Steel Tubes for Low and Medium Pressure Boilers”, GB5310-2008 “Seamless Steel Tubes for High Pressure Boilers”, GB6479-2000 “Seamless Steel Tubes for High Pressure Fertilizer Equipment” Steel Pipe”, GB9948-2006 “Seamless Steel Pipe for Petroleum Cracking”, GB18248-2000 “Seamless Steel Pipe for Gas Cylinder”.
    c) According to the level, it is divided into: international advanced level (Y), international general level (I), domestic average advanced level (H).
    3. The meaning of the standard code
    The standard code is referred to as the standard number. The standard number consists of four parts: the code of the promulgating agency, the sequence number of the legal attribute code, and the date of issuance.
    4. The composition of steel pipe standards
    The content of the steel pipe standard generally consists of nine parts: preface, scope, normative reference documents, dimensions, shape and weight, technical requirements, inspection rules for inspection methods, quality certificates for packaging marks, and appendices. The core part is the size, shape, weight, and technical requirements.
    Dimensions and weight usually include nominal outer diameter, nominal wall thickness, allowable deviation of outer diameter and wall thickness, theoretical weight per meter, length range, end shape, curvature, etc. Some standards also include allowable deviation of inner diameter, ovality, uneven wall thickness, allowable deviation of weight, etc.
    Technical requirements generally include, grade, chemical composition, manufacturing method, delivery state, mechanical properties, process performance, metallographic structure, surface quality and non-destructive testing.

    2. Common terms of steel pipe standards

    1. Nominal size and actual size
    Nominal size is the nominal size specified in the standard, which is the ideal size expected in the production process, but in actual production, the actual size of the steel pipe is often larger or smaller than the nominal size, and the actual size is called the actual size.
    2. Deviations and Tolerances
    A difference is allowed between the actual size specified in the standard and the nominal size, which is called deviation. If the difference is positive, it is called positive deviation, and if the difference is negative, it is called negative deviation. The absolute sum of positive and negative deviations specified in the standard is called tolerance, also called tolerance zone. There are absolute deviations and relative deviations.
    3. Delivery length
    1) Usual length: also known as indeterminate length. In the same steel pipe standard, the length of hot-rolled pipe and cold-drawn pipe is usually different, which is caused by the capacity of the unit.
    2) Fixed length: cut to a fixed length according to the order requirements. Should be within the usual length range, generally allow positive deviation without negative deviation.
    3) Multiple ruler length: an integer multiple of a certain length (single ruler) cut according to the order requirements. The length and multiple of the single ruler should be indicated in the contract, and the incision allowance and the deviation of the length of the multiple ruler should be considered when calculating the total length of the multiple ruler.
    4) Short ruler: The length is less than the lower limit of the usual length in the standard, but not less than the minimum length allowed in the standard. Manufacturers should try to avoid the generation of short-length pipes. More and more current steel pipe standards stipulate that short-length pipes are not allowed to overlap.
    5) Ruler length: also known as range length. The range of caliper lengths is narrower than usual. Some foreign standards stipulate the length of the ruler, but there is no concept of the length of the ruler in our country. If the user requires delivery in full length, the full range should be indicated in the contract. For example, the first-level length, second-level length, and third-level length in API 5CT are full-length lengths. The length of the ruler is not allowed to deviate.
    4. Ovality (out-of-roundness): The ovality of the steel pipe refers to the difference between the maximum outer diameter and the minimum outer diameter on the same section, Dmax-Dmin.
    5. Bending degree: the degree of unevenness of the steel pipe in the length direction. Partial curvature (also called curvature per meter) and total curvature.
    6. Smelting composition and finished product composition: The smelting composition of steel refers to the chemical composition in the middle of casting after the steel is smelted. Finished composition refers to the chemical composition on finished steel, including billets. The finished product composition and smelting composition of the same furnace are allowed to have a deviation, which is stipulated in GB/T222. At present, there are GB/T222-1984 “Sampling method for chemical analysis of steel and allowable deviation of finished chemical composition” and GB/T222-1984. There are two parallel (excessive) versions of T222-2006 “Tolerable Deviation of Finished Chemical Composition of Steel”. The general situation is that the old version is stricter than the new version. The domestic product standards formulated and revised before 2006 refer to the 84th edition in the normative reference documents (GB/T222-2006 can also be used without the date), and the standards formulated and revised after 2006 are divided into three cases , one is to specify GB/T222-1984, the other is to specify GB/T222-2006, and the third is to write only GB/T222, which means to use the latest version of GB/T222. (Some standards and users specify the 84 version, in addition to which the 2006 version can be executed. Of course, our internal advocacy is to strictly control the ingredients). The sampling regulations in the 84th edition have separately formulated GB/T20066-2006 “Sampling and sample preparation methods for samples for the determination of chemical composition of steel and iron”.

    7. Tensile strength, yield strength, elongation
    The latest domestic standard GB/T228-2002 “Metal Materials Metal Tensile Test Method” stipulates that the tensile strength symbol is Rm; the yield strength is divided into upper yield strength ReH and lower yield strength Rel, as well as Rt0.5 and Rp0.2. The unit of tensile strength and yield strength is MPa. 1MPa=1N/mm2, 1bar=100KPa=0.1MPa. The elongation symbol is A, and the unit is %. Foreign product standards include proportional samples and non-proportional samples (calibration distance). Some foreign standards stipulate that the wall thickness is reduced, and the elongation can also be reduced, which should be fully paid attention to when judging the quality.
    8. Impact energy: the work absorbed by a sample of specified shape and size when broken under one impact test force. The commonly used impact tests are U-type and V-type specimens. The so-called U-shape and V-shape refer to the notch shape. V-type samples include full-size samples (height x width) 10mm x 10mm, 3/4-size samples 10mm x 7.5mm, half-size samples 10mm x 5mm, or other smaller size samples, and you should pay attention to their conversion relation. The impact also includes longitudinal impact and lateral impact, try to use large size specimens. The API 5CT standard specifies that impact specimens require the use of transverse specimens first and then larger specimens. The re-inspection of unqualified impact energy of domestic products shall be carried out according to GB/T2102-1988 or GB/T2102-2006.
    9. Hardness: the ability to resist the indentation of hard objects on the surface. Divided into Brinell hardness (HB), Rockwell hardness (HRB, HRC), etc.
    10. Process performance: It is used to test the applicability of the quality of the steel pipe in the subsequent processing and manufacturing process. Commonly used process properties include water pressure, flattening, bending, flaring, and crimping tests.
    11. Steel grade: The performance index of steel is used as the representation method of its code. Usually expressed as the lower limit of yield strength. Such as Q345 (A, B, C, D, E), L245, N80, S135 (135,000PSi)
    12. Delivery status: the final plastic deformation processing or final heat treatment status of the delivered steel pipe. The commonly used delivery states of steel pipes are: hot rolling, annealing, normalizing, normalizing + tempering, quenching + tempering (also known as quenching and tempering) Annealing: the workpiece is slowly heated to a certain temperature, cooled for a period of time, and then A heat treatment process in which the furnace is slowly cooled, also known as furnace cooling, and normalizing is to take out the heated workpiece and cool it in the air, which is called air cooling. Quenching is to heat the workpiece and put it in a quenching agent to cool it, and tempering is to heat the workpiece at a lower temperature and then cool it after quenching.
    13. Batch: According to the prescribed principles, a certain number of steel pipes are formed into an inspection unit and become an inspection batch. The batch referred to in the standard is an inspection batch, not a delivery batch or a production batch. Note: Some foreign standards and domestic standards formulated after 2008 stipulate that if the steel pipe is no longer heat-treated after being cut into a single piece, all pipe sections cut from a steel pipe rolled from a billet should be regarded as one.

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    Coupling standards and requirements for oil casing https://www.abtersteel.com/news/products-news/coupling-standards-and-requirements-for-oil-casing/ Tue, 08 Mar 2022 01:44:56 +0000 http://www.abtersteel.com/?p=6422 9.1 General requirements Couplings shall be seamless pipes of the same grade, type and heat treatment as pipes, except in the following cases in 9.2. This standard does not require that coupling blanks be cut from coupling stock ordered in accordance with this standard. When couplings are electroplated, the electroplating process is controlled to minimize hydrogen absorption. 9.2 Grade substitution or heat treatment 9.2.1 If no heat treatment is specified in the order, Grade H40 pipe may be supplied with Couplings of Grade H40, J55, or K55 rolled, normalized, normalized + tempered, or quenched + tempered. 9.2.3 If no heat […]

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    9.1 General requirements
    Couplings shall be seamless pipes of the same grade, type and heat treatment as pipes, except in the following cases in 9.2. This standard does not require that coupling blanks be cut from coupling stock ordered in accordance with this standard.
    When couplings are electroplated, the electroplating process is controlled to minimize hydrogen absorption.
    9.2 Grade substitution or heat treatment
    9.2.1 If no heat treatment is specified in the order, Grade H40 pipe may be supplied with Couplings of Grade H40, J55, or K55 rolled, normalized, normalized + tempered, or quenched + tempered.
    9.2.3 If no heat treatment is specified in the order, grade K55 pipe may be supplied with light rolled, normalized, normalized+tempered or quenched+tempered grade K55 couplings.
    9.2.4 If specified in the order, the J55 steel grade extra thick tubing can be supplied with L80 steel grade 1 special clearance couplings.
    9.2.5 If specified on the order, grades J55 and K55 buttressed threaded casing may be supplied with L80 grade 1 couplings.
    9.2.6 M65 steel grade products can be supplied with L80 steel grade 1 couplings.
    9.2.7 Normalized N80 grade 1 pipe can be supplied with N80 grade 1 and N80Q grade couplings.
    9.2.8 Normalized + Tempered N80 Grade 1 Pipe can be supplied with Normalized + Tempered N80 Grade 1 and N80Q Couplings.
    9.2.9 If specified in the order, additional thickened N80 steel grade 1 and N80Q steel grade oil pipes can be supplied with special clearance couplings of steel grade P110.
    9.2.10 If specified in the order, N80 steel grade 1 and N80Q steel grade escutcheons can be supplied with P110 steel grade couplings.
    9.2.11 If specified in the order, P110 steel grade escalator bushings can be supplied with Q125 steel grade couplings.
    9.3 Methods of manufacture—Groups 1, 2, and 3
    Couplings made from seamless or hot forged pipe shall be heat treated as specified in Section 6.2.
    9.4 Manufacturing method —– Q125 steel grade
    Grade Q125 couplings shall be fabricated from seamless coupling stock manufactured in accordance with the same manufacturing requirements and quality control provisions as this standard for Grade Q125 casing (see Chapters 6 and 7). Couplings and coupling blanks shall be cut from coupling stock. See A.4 (SR9) for optional requirements for coupling semi-finished products.
    9.5 Mechanical properties
    Couplings shall meet the mechanical performance requirements specified in Chapters 7 and 10, including test frequency, re-test provisions, etc. Such test records shall be provided to the purchaser for inspection.
    9.6 Dimensions and deviations
    9.6.1 Groups 1, 2 and 3
    Couplings shall comply with the dimensions and tolerances specified in Tables C.35 to C.38 or Tables E.35 to E.38. Unless otherwise specified in the order, casing and tubing with threads and couplings shall be supplied with standard couplings.
    9.6.2 Group 4
    In addition to the machining of the inner surface of the coupling, the entire outer surface can be machined. Coupling dimensions shall be in accordance with the order, except when ordering API couplings, the coupling dimensions shall be in accordance with Tables C.35 and C.36 or E.35 and E.36.
    9.7 Standard Couplings
    The outer diameter (W) of standard couplings is shown in Table C.35~C.38 or Table E.35~E.38. The inner and outer edges of the bearing section of the coupling should be rounded or chamfered, but the bearing surface dimension (dimension b) can also be reduced excessively, so as to maintain sufficient thickness to safely support the weight of the pipe on the elevator. Both ends of the coupling should be strictly perpendicular to the axis.
    9.8 Special Clearance Couplings—Groups 1, 2, and 3
    When specified on the order, special clearance (reduced OD) couplings for buttress threaded casing and externally thickened tubing shall be provided. Unless otherwise specified, both ends of the extra-clearance thickened tubing coupling shall have the special chamfer specified in Section 9.12, see Figure D.5.
    When specified in the order, both ends of the special clearance trapezoidal threaded casing coupling shall have special chamfers as shown in Figure D.3, and the inner and outer edges of the coupling bearing section shall be rounded or chamfered, see Figure D.3 and Figure D.5.
    See Chapter 11 for marking and color code identification.
    9.9 Combination Couplings
    Combination couplings with different thread types of the same specification shall be supplied when specified on the order. The minimum length and minimum outer diameter of the composite coupling shall be suitable for the specified thread size and type.
    9.10 Reducing Couplings – Groups 1, 2 and 3
    Reducing couplings are used to connect two pipes with different outer diameters but the same or different thread types at both ends. Reducing couplings shall be provided if specified on the order. The minimum length and minimum outside diameter of the reducing coupling shall be suitable for the specified thread size and type.
    9.11 Coupling with sealing ring
    Couplings with sealing rings as required by Appendix A.8 (SR13) shall be provided when specified in the order.
    See Appendix H for additional requirements for PSL-2 and PSL-3 products.
    9.12 Special Chamfered Tubing Couplings – Groups 1, 2 and 3
    When specified on the order, special chamfered couplings for non-upset and over-upset oil pipes that meet the requirements of Tables C.37, C.38 or E.37, E.38 shall be provided. Unless otherwise specified, the two ends of the special chamfered oil pipe coupling shall be chamfered as shown in Figure D.4 and Figure D.5, and the inner and outer edges of the coupling bearing section shall be rounded or chamfered, as shown in Figure D.5. D.4 and Figure D.5, the obtuse edge of the chamfer should be strictly perpendicular to the axis.
    9.13 Threading
    9.13.1 General requirements
    The processing, measurement method and thread inspection of the coupling thread shall comply with the requirements of API Spec 5B standard.
    See Appendix H for additional requirements for PSL-2 and PSL-3 products.
    Note: The anti-leakage capability of the API threaded coupling may not reach the yield pressure in the pipe body, because the pressure between the coupling and the external thread is insufficient.
    9.13.2 Casing Couplings—–All Groups
    Supplied in either of the following tube ends as specified in the order:
    a) 8 teeth long round or short round thread;
    b) Buttress thread—standard, special chamfer and/or special clearance;
    c) Seal ring structure A.8 (SR13);
    d) Special end machining.
    9.13.3 Tubing Couplings—Groups 1, 2, and 3
    Supplied in either of the following tube ends as specified in the order:
    a) 8-tooth or 10-tooth round thread thickened tubing—–standard, special chamfer or special clearance;
    b) 8-tooth or 10-tooth round thread non-thickened tubing—–standard or special chamfer;
    c) Seal ring structure A.8 (SR13);
    d) Special end machining.
    9.14 Surface Inspection
    9.14.1 All finished coupling interior surfaces shall be free from defects that would disrupt thread continuity.
    9.14.2 All couplings shall be inspected for longitudinal defects on the inner and outer surfaces using wet fluorescent magnetic For non-destructive testing methods of the same sensitivity, records as required by Section 10.15.4 shall be retained.
    9.14.3 The NDE of H40, J55 and K55 steel grade couplings may be omitted if both parties agree. In this case, the coupling shall be visually inspected for visible hairlines, cracks and pores on the inner and outer surfaces after final processing and prior to coating. See Table C.39 or Table E.39 for marking requirements.
    Note: Visible hairlines and cracks are deficiencies that can be seen without the aid of magnetic particle inspection, dye penetration, or other nondestructive testing methods.
    9.14.4 To ensure that the coating or coating complies with the requirements, the threads of all couplings shall be visually inspected after coating.
    9.14.5 In addition to the imperfections permitted in Table C.39 or Table E.39, imperfections of any depth that appear during the manufacturer’s inspection shall be removed.
    9.14.6 Except as described in 9.14.7, the outer surface of the re-inspected product coupling shall be inspected in accordance with the requirements of 9.14.2 or 9.14.3. Defects other than those of the outer surface.
    9.14.7 For J55 and K55 coupling materials, as well as N80 Grades Type 1, N80Q Grades and No. Coupling materials of Groups 2, 3, and 4 shall not be rejected if there is a linear defect on the outer surface with a depth not exceeding 5% of the critical wall thickness after subsequent retesting outside the factory.
    Critical wall thicknesses are defined in Section 7.3.2.
    9.15 Detection of deficiencies
    The depth of the notch shall be measured from the normal surface of the coupling or from the contour of the coupling extended above the notch. The outside diameter of the finished coupling shall be measured on the machined surface or contour (i.e., the original surface or the contour ground to remove imperfections or defects) and shall not be measured at the bottom of pits where permitted.
    9.16 Deficiency and Defect Alternation and Removal
    Repair welding is not allowed. Impermissible imperfections as defined in Section 9.14.5 shall be removed, and permitted imperfections in Table C.39 or Table E.39 may be removed or reduced to acceptable limits by machining or grinding, provided the The measured outer diameter of the finished coupling is within the tolerance range, otherwise it shall be rejected. Machining or grinding must transition smoothly to the outer contour of the coupling.
    After the defect has been removed, the affected area shall be re-inspected, and the re-inspection shall be:
    (1) The same test method, the same sensitivity as the original test, or
    (2) A different test method, but with the same or higher sensitivity as the original test method.
    9.17 Thread surface treatment —– Q125 grade
    Thread surface treatment shall be carried out as specified in the order.
    9.18 Protection of couplings and coupling semi-finished products—Grades C90, T95 and Q125
    All coupling semi-finished and loose couplings machined to their final OD should be boxed to avoid collisions during shipment. Other coupling semi-finished products should also be boxed to prevent cracks and gouges that cannot be easily eliminated by subsequent machining. The packing box should be made of suitable materials to prevent damage to the product surface during transportation, and should be designed in a shape that is convenient for forklift handling.
    10 Inspection and testing
    10.1 Test equipment
    To ensure that all products comply with the requirements of this standard, the manufacturer shall determine the appropriate calibration frequency for the test equipment.
    If equipment calibrated or verified in accordance with the provisions of this standard is found to be in a condition that is abnormal or seriously affects its accuracy, it should be recalibrated before it is used again.

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    Various test procedure rules for tubing and casing https://www.abtersteel.com/news/products-news/various-test-procedure-rules-for-tubing-and-casing/ Mon, 28 Feb 2022 02:28:00 +0000 http://www.abtersteel.com/?p=6414 10.4 Tensile test 10.4.1 Stress release temperature For the purpose of tensile test frequency requirements, stress-relief tempered tubes are considered to have not been “heat-treated” when the stress-relief temperature is 56°C (1000°F) below the final temper temperature. 10.4.2 Furnace—Controlled Tensile Test—Group 1, 2, 3 For each heat of steel produced in accordance with this standard, the manufacturer shall conduct a tensile test as a control test for each heat of steel. For electric welded pipes, this controlled tensile test may be selected by the manufacturer, or be carried out on the steel billet or on finished tubes. A furnace-controlled tensile […]

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    10.4 Tensile test
    10.4.1 Stress release temperature
    For the purpose of tensile test frequency requirements, stress-relief tempered tubes are considered to have not been “heat-treated” when the stress-relief temperature is 56°C (1000°F) below the final temper temperature.
    10.4.2 Furnace—Controlled Tensile Test—Group 1, 2, 3
    For each heat of steel produced in accordance with this standard, the manufacturer shall conduct a tensile test as a control test for each heat of steel. For electric welded pipes, this controlled tensile test may be selected by the manufacturer, or be carried out on the steel billet or on finished tubes.
    A furnace-controlled tensile test on a tube may also be used as a product test for this batch of tubes.
    10.4.3 Test frequency and sampling location—–casing and tubing
    The test frequencies for all sets of casing and tubing are specified in Table C40 or Table E40.
    See Appendix H for additional requirements for PSL-2 and PSL-3 steel pipes.
    Test tubes shall be randomly selected, and when more than one test is performed, the sampling method shall ensure that the samples provided represent the beginning and end of the heat treatment cycle (if applicable) and both ends of the tube. When more than one test is carried out, the specimens shall be taken from different steel pipes, except that the specimens for thickened pipes may be taken from both ends of one pipe.
    10.4.4 Test Frequency and Sampling Location—Coupling Stock, Couplings, Pup Joints, and Accessories
    See Table C.41 and Table E.41 for the test frequency of coupling blanks and couplings, and see Table C.42 or E.42 for the test frequency of pup joints and accessories.
    For Groups 1, 2 (except C90 and T95), and Group 3 accessories, when sampling from the bar stock, it is taken from the middle corresponding to the wall thickness of the final finished pipe.
    Groups 2 (C90 and T95) and 4, tensile test specimens for coupling stock, coupling, pup joints, and accessory material heat treated as a whole shall be taken in accordance with Figure D.10.
    Pup joints or accessories made from previously tested and qualified casing, tubing or coupling semi-finished products shall not be subjected to tensile testing if they are not subsequently heat treated.
    Furnace—Controlled Tensile Testing may also be used as a product test for this batch of tubes.
    10.4.5 Specimen—–General
    The tube body tensile test specimens can be selected by the manufacturer, either full-section specimens, bar specimens, or round bar specimens, as shown in Figure D.9. Strip specimens taken from seamless pipe and coupling stock may be determined by the manufacturer. Taken anywhere on the circumference of the tube. The round bar specimen shall be taken from the middle of the pipe wall. The strip and round bar specimens taken from electric welded pipes shall be taken at a position about 90º to the weld, or at the choice of the manufacturer, parallel to the rolling direction on the steel plate for pipe making, at a distance of about four points from the edge of the plate One of the strip widths is sampled. Tensile specimens of heat-treated steel pipe and coupling stock shall be taken from the final heat-treated pipe on the production line.
    The width of all bar specimens over the gauge length of approximately 38 mm (1.500 in. ). Otherwise, for the pipe whose size code 1 is less than 4, the width within the gauge length of the sample is about 19mm (0.75in); for the pipe whose size code 1 is 4~7 5/8 size, the width is about 25mm (1.00in) ); for tubes larger than 7 5/8, the width is approximately 38mm (1.500in).
    All tensile specimens of the pipe body, except round bar specimens, shall represent the entire wall thickness of the intercepted pipe and shall not be flattened during the test. If a round bar specimen is used, a specimen with a diameter of 12.7 mm (0.500 in) shall be used when the size of the pipe allows; for pipes of other specifications, a round bar specimen with a diameter of 8.9 mm (0.350 in) shall be used. When the tube size is too small to take an 8.9 mm (0.350 in) specimen, the round bar tensile specimen is not suitable. When it is necessary to record or report the elongation, the record and report shall report the specified width of the strip sample used, or the diameter and gauge length of the round bar sample used, or the case of the full-section tubular sample used.
    10.4.6 Specimen—Additional Requirements for Grade Q125 Couplings, Pup Joints, and Accessories
    In addition to the requirements of Section 10.4.5, longitudinal tensile test specimens shall be taken from the material of the coupling, pup joint or accessory, or after the final heat treatment for coupling semi-finished products, pup joints or accessories that are heat treated separately. The tensile test specimen shall be a strip test specimen, or when the wall thickness of the pipe is greater than 19.1 mm (0.750 in), a round bar test specimen with a diameter of 12.7 mm (0.500 in) as shown in Figure D.9 may be used.
    For couplings, pup joints or accessories that are heat-treated in the form of semi-finished couplings or single pieces, the tensile test specimens shall be cut as shown in Figure D.10.
    According to the agreement between the supplier and the buyer, strip samples with small cross-sections can be used.
    10.4.7 Test method
    The tensile properties of the product shall be determined on longitudinal test specimens that meet the requirements of Section 10.4.5, ISO 6892 or ASTM A370, and that of grade Q125 shall meet the requirements of Section 10.4.6. Tensile tests should be carried out at room temperature. The strain rate during tensile test shall meet the requirements of ISO6892 or ASTM A370.
    Tensile testing machines shall be calibrated to ISO 7500-1 or ASTM E4 within 15 months prior to any testing. The extensometer shall be calibrated in accordance with ASTM E83 within 15 months prior to any testing. Records shall be kept as specified in 13.5.
    10.4.8 Test invalid
    If any tensile specimen fails to be machined or defective, that specimen may be discarded and replaced with another specimen.
    10.4.9 Reinspection —– all products except couplings, coupling stock, pup joints and accessories of grades C90, T95 and Q125
    If one tensile test specimen representing a batch of pipes does not meet the specified requirements, the manufacturer may take three additional pipes from the same batch for re-inspection.
    If all the re-inspection samples meet the requirements, the batch of steel pipes shall be judged as qualified except the unqualified pipe that was initially sampled.
    If more than one sample in the initial test does not meet the specified requirements or one or more samples in the re-tested sample do not meet the specified requirements, the manufacturer may inspect the remaining steel pipes of the batch one by one. The sampling method for retest specimens shall be the same as those specified in Sections 10.4.5 and 10.4.6. Retest specimens for grades M65, L80 and C95 shall be taken from the same end of the original specimen.
    Unqualified batches may be reheat treated and retested as a new batch of tubes.
    10.4.10 Retest – Couplings, Coupling Stocks, Pup Joints and Accessories of Grades C90, T95 and Q125
    For materials heat-treated as a whole tube, if a tensile specimen does not meet the specified requirements, the manufacturer shall take samples from both ends of the tube in question for testing or discard the tube. No additional testing shall be allowed to determine compliance of coupling, pup joint or accessory material. Both samples should meet the specified requirements, otherwise the steel pipe will be rejected. The manufacturer may re-heat treat the batch of waste tubes and re-test as a batch of tubes.
    For materials that are heat-treated as coupling semi-finished products or single products, if one tensile test fails to meet the specified requirements, the manufacturer shall re-heat treat the batch in question, or take three additional tubes from the batch in question. If one or more samples do not meet the requirements, the batch should be discarded. The manufacturer may re-heat treat this batch of waste tubes and re-test as a new batch of tubes.
    10.5 Flattening test
    10.5.1 General requirements for testing
    A flattening test shall be performed on all welded pipes with the D/t ratios shown in Tables C.23 and E.23.
    In Sections 10.5.2 to 10.5.7, the 0º position refers to the weld contacting the platen (defined as the 12 o’clock or 6 o’clock position), and the 90º position refers to the weld at the 3 o’clock or 9 o’clock position.
    10.5.2 Test frequency
    The test frequency shall be determined according to Table C.44 or E.44.
    10.5.3 Specimen
    Specimens shall be specimen rings or end-cuts not less than 63.5 mm (2-1/2 in) in length.
    For pipes cut from coils of multiple gauges, the test of one end of a pipe shall be representative of the test of a subsequent pipe and its adjacent end. If the pipe is to be thickened, the specimen shall be taken before the pipe is thickened.
    Specimens may be cut prior to heat treatment, but subjected to the same heat treatment as the tubes represented. If batch testing is used, measures shall be taken to identify the relationship between the sample and the sampling tube. A flattening test shall be performed for each heat in each batch.
    For fully normalized ERW pipes, including ERW pipes processed by hot tension rolling in accordance with the requirements of Section 6.2.1, the flattening test may be selected by the manufacturer and taken before or after heat treatment.
    10.5.4 Test method—Group 1 non-integrally heat-treated steel pipes
    The specimen shall be flattened between two parallel plates. In each set of flattening test specimens, one weld was flattened at 90º and the other was flattened at 0º. The specimen shall be flattened until the tube walls are in contact with each other. Before the distance between the parallel plates is less than the value specified in Table C.23 or E.23, no cracks or fractures shall occur in any part of the specimen. During the entire flattening process, there should be no poor structure, unfused welds, delamination, metal over-burning or extrusion of metal.
    10.5.5 Test method—–Group 1 and 2 integral heat-treated steel pipes
    The sample is flattened between two parallel plates, and the weld should be at the maximum bend; at the decision of the inspector, the flattening test should also be performed so that the weld and the maximum bend are at a position of 90º. The specimen shall be flattened until it touches the opposite tube wall. Before the distance between parallel plates is less than those specified in Table C.23 or E.23,
    There shall be no cracks or fractures in any part of the specimen. During the entire flattening process, there should be no poor structure, unfused welds, delamination, metal over-burning or extrusion of metal.
    10.5.6 Test Methods —– Grade P110 Pipe and Grade Q125 Casing
    When the buyer specifies ERW (electric welding resistance) and SR11, the requirements of A.6 (SR11) shall be implemented.
    10.5.7 Retest
    If any of the specimens representing a tube does not meet the specified requirements, the manufacturer may take samples from the same end of the tube for supplementary testing until the requirements are met. However, the length of the finished tube after sampling shall not be less than 80% of the original length. If any sample of a tube representing a batch of products does not meet the specified requirements, the manufacturer may take two other tubes from the batch of products to cut Sample retest. If these re-inspection results meet the specified requirements, the batch of pipes is qualified except for the pipe originally selected as the sample. If any sample for re-inspection fails to meet the specified requirements, the manufacturer may take samples from the remaining pipes of the batch one by one. The method of taking samples for re-inspection is the same as that specified in 10.5.3. At the option of the manufacturer, any batch of tubes may be reheat treated and retested as a new batch of tubes.
    10.6 Hardness test
    10.6.1 PSL requirements
    Additional requirements for PSL-3 grades N80(Q), C95 and P110 are given in Annex H.
    10.6.2 Test frequency—–General
    The frequency of hardness testing for all products is shown in Tables C.43 and E.43.
    Both parties agree that the steel pipe and the thickened part can be subjected to the additional hardness test of the outer surface and the hardness test of the full wall thickness. The test method for this additional test shall be agreed upon by both parties.
    A hardness test is not required for pup joints or accessories machined from tested pup joint or accessory material of grades M65, L80, C90, T95 or Q125 without subsequent heat treatment.
    10.6.3 Frequency of Tests—–Furnace—Controlled Test—–M65 and L80 Grades
    Hardness specimens taken from each furnace-controlled tensile specimen shall be subjected to a full-wall hardness test to determine compliance with hardness requirements.
    A furnace-controlled test on one tube may also be used as a product test for this batch of tubes.
    10.6.4 Test frequency—–M65 and L80 grades
    For steel pipe, coupling and accessory materials, the frequency of hardness testing shall be the same as the frequency of tensile testing corresponding to each product.
    See Appendix H for additional requirements for PSL-3 products.
    10.6.5 Test Frequency and Sampling Location—–Non-upper tube—–C90 and T95 grades
    For non-pumped pipes, a full wall hardness test shall be performed in one quadrant, and the specimen shall be taken from one end of each pipe, with approximately 50% of the specimen loops taken from the front end of the pipe and the other half from the pipe the back end.
    See Appendix H for additional requirements for PSL-3 products.
    10.6.6 Test Frequency and Sampling Location —– Thickened Pipe—–C90 and T95 Grades
    A full-wall hardness test shall be carried out in four quadrants on the body of each tube subjected to the tensile test in accordance with the requirements of 10.4.3 to determine compliance. The test frequency for thickened pipes shall be once every 20 pieces in each batch. Specimens shall be taken from the thickest part of the thickened part and a full-thickness hardness test shall be carried out in four quadrants.
    In addition to the full-wall (cross-section) hardness test, a Brinell or Rockwell hardness test shall be performed on the outer surface of the body and thickened portion of each pipe.
    10.6.7 Test frequency and sampling location—–couplings, pup joints and accessories—–C90 and T95 grades
    For thick-walled pipes used to produce more than one coupling, pup joints and accessories, a sample ring shall be taken at each end of the pipe, and both sample rings shall be subjected to a full-wall hardness test.
    For single heat treated couplings, pup joints, and accessories, the pipe fitting with the greatest surface hardness in the lot shall be selected for testing.
    For a single heat-treated coupling, the hardness test ring shall be cut from the middle as shown in Figure D.10. For single heat-treated pup joints and accessories, for couplings, pup joints or accessories heat-treated by method c) specified in 10.2.3, the hardness test ring may be cut from the middle as shown in Figure D.10, or from Extended section interception.
    The full-thickness hardness test shall be performed in four quadrants.
    10.6.8 Test frequency—–Q125 steel grade
    For casing, 3 pipes were selected from each batch for full wall hardness testing. If the sampling method can ensure that the samples provided can represent the beginning and end of the heat treatment cycle and both ends of the pipe, the test pipe shall be randomly selected.
    For couplings, pup joints or accessory materials heat treated in full pipe, one end of each pipe shall be subjected to a full wall hardness test (with a 50% probability of sampling at each end).
    For couplings, pup joints or accessories heat-treated in the form of semi-finished couplings or a single piece, one sample from each batch shall be taken for the full-wall hardness test.
    The full wall thickness test shall be performed in one quadrant.
    For products of the PSL-3 category, see Appendix H for additional requirements.
    10.6.9 Specimen
    The hardness test specimen shall be cut from the product according to the position shown in Figure D.10, or cut from the pipe end or extension according to the provisions of this standard. For all grades, the full wall hardness test shall be carried out on a test ring or test block.
    For a full-wall hardness test in a quadrant, it shall be carried out on a specimen block taken from the specimen ring or tensile specimen. For full-wall hardness testing in four quadrants, it shall be performed on a sample ring or a sample block taken from a sample ring. The full-wall hardness test ring shall be prepared as specified in Figure D.11.
    The two surfaces of the hardness sample should be ground parallel and smooth, and there should be no oxide scale, impurities and lubricants on the surface of the hardness sample.
    10.6.10 Test method
    Brinell hardness test should be carried out according to ISO6506-1 or ASTM E10, Rockwell hardness according to ISO 6508-1 or ASTM E18.
    In this standard, two test methods are used:
    a) The outer surface test consists of an indentation;
    b) The full wall hardness test includes multiple indentations.
    The outer surface hardness test can be carried out by either the Rockwell hardness method or the Brinell hardness method. As specified in this standard, the outer surface hardness test is used for product identification and process control.
    The full-thickness hardness test shall be performed in accordance with the Rockwell hardness method and shall be used for product determination of maximum hardness, allowable quantification of hardness change and hardenability in the quenched state. The full-wall hardness test shall be carried out perpendicular to the axis of the steel pipe. When the sample ring is taken from the pipe end, the hardness test shall be carried out from the side of the sample ring away from the pipe end (ie away from the quenched end face). To reduce possible errors, the first hardness indentation in the first quadrant of each hardness test block or ring can be ignored.
    When the specified wall thickness is less than 7.62mm (0.30in), for the full wall thickness hardness test, three indentations at the middle of the wall thickness of the sample shall be taken. For all other products, the 3 indentations in each quadrant should be in three locations. The hardness readings of 3 indentations at each location (eg: outer, middle and inner) are averaged as the average hardness reading for that location. The full-wall hardness test consists of the average hardness reading at each location in a quadrant. Whether the full-wall hardness test is performed in one quadrant or four quadrants shall be calibrated in accordance with this standard.
    Internal and external indentations shall be measured in a band 2.54-3.18 mm from the surface, but the distance between the center of the indentation and the inner and outer surfaces shall not be less than 2½ times the diameter of the indentation. The distance between indentations should be at least 3 times the indentation diameter (from the center of the indentation to the center of the indentation). For thin-walled tubes, the spacing of each row is allowed to be staggered.
    The full wall thickness test generally adopts the Rockwell C scale method. Materials with hardness below 20HRC are accepted by the Rockwell C scale method. When the hardness measured is lower than 20HRC, it should be used with care due to the loss of accuracy, but these results can be used to determine the hardness. Selected by the manufacturer or specified by the purchaser, the Rockwell B scale method may be used for materials with hardness below 20HRC. Rockwell hardness readings and average hardness readings shall be reported on the Rockwell C scale, accurate to one decimal place. When the order specifies the implementation of A.9 (SR15), the manufacturer shall provide three readings to the purchaser.
    Unless agreed by the purchaser, the hardness conversion shall be selected by the manufacturer and converted according to a suitable conversion table.
    The Brinell hardness reading should be rounded to three significant figures. When the test pressure is greater than 29.342kN (3000kgf), the diameter of the pressure ball is greater than 10mm, and the test pressure lasts for 10s~15s, the test conditions should be reported.
    In case of dispute, the laboratory HRC scale hardness test shall be used as the drawing method.
    10.6.11 Test invalid
    If any hardness test specimen fails to be machined or defective, that test specimen may be scrapped and replaced with another test specimen.
    10.6.12 Periodic calibration of hardness testing machines
    Brinell hardness testing machine should be regularly calibrated according to ISO6506-1 or ASTM E18 Part B steps, Rockwell hardness tester should be regularly calibrated according to ISO6508-1 or ASTM E10 Part B steps; ISO title is “User Periodic Calibration” Testing Machine Procedures” section is linked to the ASTM section entitled “User Periodic Calibration Procedures”. At the beginning and end of the continuous operation of the testing machine, the tests are calibrated the required number of times so that the manufacturer, the purchaser (or its representative) can confirm that the testing machine is within the calibration range. Calibration is performed using standard test blocks in the following hardness ranges:
    a) The second group: 20HRC~35HRC
    b) Q125 steel grade: 25HRC~35HRC
    If the calibration result of the testing machine is not within the calibration range, for Brinell hardness testing machines, use a standard test block according to ISO6506-2 or ASTM E18 Part B for indirect verification, and for Rockwell hardness testing machines, use a standard test block according to ISO6508-2. or ASTM E10 Part B Indirect Verification.
    10.6.13 Re-inspection—–M65 and L80 steel grades
    For M65 and L80 steel grades, if a full-wall hardness sample representing a batch of steel pipes does not meet the specified requirements, the manufacturer may take two more samples from the same batch and the same end of the original sample for re-inspection. If all the re-inspection samples meet the requirements, the batch of steel pipes shall be judged as qualified except the unqualified pipe that was initially sampled. If one or more of the re-inspection samples do not meet the specified requirements, the manufacturer may inspect the remaining steel pipes one by one or discard them as a whole.
    10.6.14 Re-inspection—–Except coupling semi-finished products, pup joints or accessories cut into single pieces for heat treatment, other products of C90 and T95 grades
    For grades C90 and T95, if either average hardness reading is between 25.4HRC and 27.0HRC (including 27.0HRC), then 3 more hardness readings shall be taken in the closest area to determine a new average hardness reading . If the new average hardness reading does not exceed 25.4HRC, the tube is qualified. If the new average hardness reading exceeds 25.4HRC, the canal should be rejected.
    10.6.15 Reinspection—–C90 and T95 steel grades cut into single pieces and heat treated coupling semi-finished products, pup joints or accessories
    For the semi-finished couplings, pup joints or accessories of steel grades C90 and T95 cut into single pieces for heat treatment, if a hardness sample representing a batch of steel pipes does not meet the specified requirements, the steel pipe shall be rejected. For the batch of steel pipes selected for the initial test, the manufacturer shall re-heat treatment of the batch of steel pipes or use the same selection criteria to retake 3 samples for testing. If any of the three re-test samples fails to meet the specified requirements, the entire heat treatment will be rejected.
    10.6.16 Re-inspection—–Q125 steel grade—–General
    If the permissible hardness variation on a sample exceeds that specified in C.6 or Table E.6, the hardness indentation in that quadrant may be ground away (at the option of the manufacturer), and the indentation in the initial test can be placed on the lower surface of the indentation. Try again. Only one regrind and retest is allowed for each specimen. After re-inspection, products that do not meet the requirements shall be scrapped.
    10.6.17 Re-inspection—–Q125 steel grade—–casing
    If more than one of the first 3 test tubes representing a batch of casing fails, the manufacturer may choose to test the remaining tubes of the batch one by one. Retests of these tubes shall only be permitted as specified in 10.6.16.
    If only one of the first 3 test tubes representing a batch of casings fails. Then another 3 pipes can be taken for re-inspection to determine whether the batch of casings is qualified. When re-testing, only those specified in Section 10.6.16 are allowed. If any one of the 3 pipes in the re-inspection fails, the manufacturer can choose to test the remaining pipes one by one, or reprocess the batch of pipes (that is, for a batch of casings, 6 pipes Five of the test tubes must comply with Section 7.8 and Table C.6 or E.6 to qualify the batch of casing).
    10.6.18 Reinspection—–Grade Q125—–Couplings, pup joints and accessories
    When couplings, pup joints or accessories are heat treated with coupling semi-finished products or single pipes, if the hardness change specified in Section 7.8 exceeds the value specified in Table C.6 or E.6, it is at the option of the manufacturer and may be selected from the batch. Another 3 pieces of the products are taken for full wall thickness hardness re-examination. If any of the 3 re-inspected products does not meet the maximum hardness change value, the batch of products should be scrapped.
    10.6.19 Retirement —– Groups 2 and 4
    For all products, the whole batch of scrap steel pipe shall be reprocessed (ie reheat treated) and retested for hardness as a new batch.
    10.7 Impact test
    10.7.1 Sampling —– J55, K55 and N80 Grade 1 Pipe
    For the accessory materials and coupling blanks required in 7.6, one steel tube from each batch shall be selected for impact testing.
    10.7.2 Sampling —– M65 grade pipe
    Each batch of steel pipes shall be selected for a set of impact tests.
    10.7.3 Sampling —–N80Q, L80, C90, C95, T95 and P110 grades
    For tubes, unless compliance with the requirements is determined by documented procedures, one tube from each lot shall be subjected to a set of impact tests, see Section 7.5.6. This test is mandatory if the purchaser implements the requirements of Annex A.10 (SR16).
    For the accessory materials and coupling blanks or coupling semi-finished products required in 7.6, one steel tube from each batch shall be selected for a set of impact tests.
    10.7.4 Sampling and sample location —– Q125 grade
    For casing, 3 steel pipes shall be sampled from each batch for testing. The test pipes shall be randomly selected, and the sampling method shall ensure that the samples provided can represent the beginning and end of the heat treatment cycle and both ends of the treated casing.
    For coupling stock, pup joints, or accessory material, when heat treated as a whole pipe, one end of each pipe shall be tested with approximately a 50% chance of sampling each end of the treated ends.
    For couplings, pup joints, or accessories, when heat treating coupling blanks and individual pieces, one tube per lot shall be tested.
    10.7.5 Specimen
    The sampling directions of longitudinal and transverse specimens are shown in Figure D.12.
    Impact specimens shall not use flattened tubes.
    When using transverse specimens for electric welded pipes, the welds shall be located at the notch position of the Charpy impact test specimens.
    The surface of the final machined transverse test specimens may contain the outer diameter surface of the original pipe product, provided that the requirements of Figure D.13 are met. These test specimens shall only be used in transverse test specimens cut to the maximum thickness consistent with Table C.9 or E.9. should be used only when this is the case.
    10.7.6 Test method
    The Charpy V-notch impact test shall be performed in accordance with ASTM A370 or ASTM E23.
    To determine whether a measured value meets these requirements, the measured value should be rounded to the nearest whole number. The impact energy value of a group of impact tests (that is, the average value of three samples) should be expressed as an integer, and the rounding should be carried out according to the ISO31-0 or ASTM E29 rounding method.
    10.7.7 Test invalid
    Whether before or after the test, if it is found that the sample preparation is unqualified or there is a lack of material unrelated to the test item, the sample can be scrapped and replaced with another sample from the same pipe. The sample shall not be rejected because it does not meet the minimum absorbed work requirement (10.7.7~10.7.9).
    10.7.8 Re-examination of a single canal —– all groups
    If more than one sample is less than the specified minimum absorbed energy requirement or a single value is less than two-thirds of the specified minimum absorbed energy requirement, three additional samples shall be taken from the same steel pipe for retest. The impact energy of each sample of the re-examination sample shall be equal to or greater than the specified minimum absorbed energy requirement, otherwise the steel pipe shall be judged waste.
    10.7.9 Replacement of a single scrap steel pipe —– all groups
    If a test result does not meet the requirements of Sections 7.4-7.6 (if applicable), and the re-test results do not meet the requirements of Section 10.7.7, three specimens shall be cut from each of the three additional steel pipes from the batch. , if the test results of these samples are all qualified, the batch of steel pipes shall be judged as qualified except the steel pipe that was initially judged to be discarded; if the test results of one or two steel pipes in such samples still do not meet the requirements, Then the manufacturer may choose, either to test the remaining steel tubes one by one, or to re-heat treat the batch and re-test as a new batch.
    10.7.10 Multiple scrap steel pipes —– Q125 grade
    If more than one of the three steel pipes in the initial test of a batch of casings is judged to be scrapped, the batch of steel pipes is not allowed to be re-inspected. At the manufacturer’s option, either test the remaining tubes one by one from the batch, or reheat the batch and retest as a new batch.

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    Construction scaffolding steel pipe specification table https://www.abtersteel.com/news/products-news/construction-scaffolding-steel-pipe-specification-table/ Sat, 26 Feb 2022 03:49:20 +0000 http://www.abtersteel.com/?p=6411 1. Specifications of scaffolding steel pipes: diameters are Φ3.0, Φ2.75, Φ3.25, Φ2.5; lengths are generally 1-6 meters and half a meter, and can be processed according to customer requirements. 2. The implementation standard of scaffolding steel pipe: SY/T5768-95 GB/T3091-2001. 3. The material of scaffolding steel pipe: Q195, Q215 or Q235. Extended information Types of Fastener 1. Advantages 1) The bearing capacity is large. When the geometric size and structure of the scaffold meet the relevant requirements of the specification, under normal circumstances, the bearing capacity of the single-tube column of the scaffold can reach 15kN ~ 35kN (1.5tf ~ 3.5tf, […]

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    1. Specifications of scaffolding steel pipes: diameters are Φ3.0, Φ2.75, Φ3.25, Φ2.5; lengths are generally 1-6 meters and half a meter, and can be processed according to customer requirements.

    2. The implementation standard of scaffolding steel pipe: SY/T5768-95 GB/T3091-2001.

    3. The material of scaffolding steel pipe: Q195, Q215 or Q235.

    Extended information

    Types of

    Fastener

    1. Advantages

    1) The bearing capacity is large. When the geometric size and structure of the scaffold meet the relevant requirements of the specification, under normal circumstances, the bearing capacity of the single-tube column of the scaffold can reach 15kN ~ 35kN (1.5tf ~ 3.5tf, the design value).

    2) Easy to assemble and disassemble, and flexible to erect. Because the length of the steel pipe is easy to adjust and the fasteners are easy to connect, it can be adapted to scaffolding for buildings and structures of various planes and elevations.

    3) It is relatively economical, simple to process, and low in one-time investment costs; if the geometric dimensions of the scaffolding are carefully designed, and attention is paid to improving the utilization rate of steel pipe turnover, the material consumption can also achieve better economic results. The fastener steel pipe frame is equivalent to about 15 kilograms of construction steel per square meter.

    2. Disadvantages

    1) The fastener (especially its screw) is easy to lose;

    Bolt tightening torque should not be less than 40N m, and should not be greater than 65N m;

    2) The members at the nodes are eccentrically connected, and the load and internal force are transmitted by the anti-sliding force, thus reducing their bearing capacity;

    3) The connection quality of fastener nodes is significantly affected by the quality of the fastener itself and the operation of workers.

    Portal steel pipe

    1. Advantages

    1) The geometric dimensions of portal steel scaffolding are standardized.

    2) Reasonable structure, good mechanical performance, full use of steel strength, high bearing capacity.

    3) Easy to assemble and disassemble during construction, high erection efficiency, labor-saving, time-saving, safe, reliable, economical and applicable.

    2. Disadvantages

    1) There is no flexibility in the frame size, any change in the frame size must be replaced by another type of gantry and its accessories

    2) The cross bracing is easy to break at the middle hinge point;

    3) The stereotyped scaffolding board is heavier,

    4) The price is more expensive

    bowl button

    1. Advantages

    1) Multi-function: according to specific construction requirements, it can form single and double row scaffolds with different frame sizes, shapes and bearing capacities, support frames, support columns, material lifting frames, climbing scaffolds, cantilever frames and other functions of construction equipment. It can also be used to build construction sheds, material sheds, lighthouses and other structures. Especially suitable for erecting curved scaffolds and heavy-duty supports.

    2) High efficiency: the longest among the commonly used rods is 3130mm and the weight is 17.07kg. The assembly and dismantling speed of the whole frame is 3 to 5 times faster than the conventional one, and the assembly and dismantling is quick and labor-saving. The worker can complete the whole operation with a hammer, avoiding many inconveniences caused by bolt operation.

    3) Strong versatility: The main components are made of ordinary fastener-type steel pipe scaffolding pipes, which can be connected with ordinary steel pipes by fasteners, which has strong versatility.

    4) Large bearing capacity: the vertical rod connection is a coaxial socket, the horizontal rod and the vertical rod are connected by a bowl buckle joint, and the joint has reliable mechanical properties of bending, shearing and torsion resistance. Moreover, the axis lines of each rod intersect at a point, and the nodes are in the frame plane, so the structure is stable and reliable, and the bearing capacity is large.

    2. Disadvantages

    1) The cross bar is a shaped bar of several sizes, and the bowl buckle nodes on the vertical bar are set at a distance of 0.6m, which limits the size of the frame;

    2) U-shaped connecting pins are easy to lose;

    3) The price is more expensive;

    Buckle

    1) Easy and fast: It is easy and fast to build, and has strong mobility, which can meet the requirements of a wide range of operations;

    2) Flexible, safe and reliable: according to different actual needs, we can build scaffolding with various specifications and multiple rows of mobile, and various perfect safety accessories to provide firm and safe support in the operation;

    3) Convenient storage and transportation: It occupies a small area for dismantling and storage, and can be pushed for easy transfer. Components can pass through various narrow passages.

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