abter steel pipe manufacturer, natural gas casing and tubing,seamless steel pipe,OCTG, http://www.abtersteel.com OCTG pipe,carbon steel pipe,seamless steel pipe ,erw pipe Fri, 17 Aug 2018 01:59:21 +0000 en-US hourly 1 What is the difference between pipe vs tube? http://www.abtersteel.com/techinical-info/what-is-the-difference-between-pipe-vs-tube/ Fri, 17 Aug 2018 01:55:52 +0000 http://www.abtersteel.com/?p=4339 What is the difference between pipe vs tube? A pipe is a round tubular to transport or distribute fluids and gases. Steel pipes are designated by a nominal size value (NPS or DN), which represent a rough indication of their inside diameter and fluid conveyance capacity. A tube is a round, rectangular, squared or oval hollow section measured by outside diameter (“OD”) and wall thickness (“WT”), expressed in inches or millimeters.  Pipes are used for conveying fluids and gases; tubes are used to manufacturing pressure equipment (tubing) and for mechanical applications. PIPE INSIDE DIAMETER The word “steel pipe” refers to round […]

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What is the difference between pipe vs tube? A pipe is a round tubular to transport or distribute fluids and gases. Steel pipes are designated by a nominal size value (NPS or DN), which represent a rough indication of their inside diameter and fluid conveyance capacity. A tube is a round, rectangular, squared or oval hollow section measured by outside diameter (“OD”) and wall thickness (“WT”), expressed in inches or millimeters. 

Pipe vs Tube

Pipes are used for conveying fluids and gases; tubes are used to manufacturing pressure equipment (tubing) and for mechanical applications.

PIPE INSIDE DIAMETER

The word “steel pipe” refers to round hollow sections used for transmission and distribution pipelines and piping systems that convey fluids and gases – such oil & gas, propane, steam, acids, and water.

Steel PIpe

The most important dimension for a steel pipe is the inside diameter (“pipe ID”), which indicates the rough (not the exact) fluid conveyance capacity of the tubular. The ID is expressed in NPS” or “DN” (nominal pipe size, or bore size).

The pipe outside diameter (OD) does not match the nominal size for pipes below NPS 14 inches (a 2 inches pipe, for instance, has an internal flow capacity of approximately 2 inches, but has an outside diameter of 2.375 inches). For pipes of a given NPS, the pipe outside diameter is fixed, whereas the pipe inside diameter decreases by increasing schedule values (pipe wall thickness).

The most important mechanical parameters for pipes are the pressure rating, the yield strength, and the ductility.

The standard combinations of pipe nominal diameter and wall thickness (schedule) are covered by the ASME B36.10 and ASME B36.19 specifications (respectively, carbon and alloy pipes, and stainless steel pipes).

 

PIPE INSIDE DIAMETER CALCULATOR

As mentioned, the outside diameter of pipes of a specific NPS is constant but the inside diameter of the pipe (ID) changes depending on the pipe schedule.

The pipe ID can be easily calculated, as long as the pipe NPS and schedule are known.

The pipe ID can be calculated by deducting from the pipe NPS the pipe wall thickness multiplied by 2 (the pipe WT can be taken from the schedule). Example: for a 12 NPS pipe (DN 300 mm), schedule 40, the pipe outside diameter and the wall thickness are 12.75 inches (324 mm) and 0.406 inches (10.4 mm).

Therefore, the pipe ID (internal diameter) is 12.75 inches – 2 x 0.406 inches = 11.94 inches, or Pipe ID = 324 mm – 2 x 10.4 mm = 303.2 mm.

It should be noted that this calculation is just theoretical, as pipes have a wall thickness tolerance which is generally +/-12.5% for ASME pipes. Hence the actual ID of a given pipe may differ by +/- 12,5% from the theoretical value.

The pipe ID calculator is available on this page.

 

TUBE OUTSIDE DIAMETER AND WALL THICKNESS

The word “tube” refers to round, square, rectangular, and oval hollow sections used for pressure equipment (boilers, heaters, and superheaters), for mechanical applications and for instrumentation systems. For these type of applications, the outside diameter and the wall thickness of the tube are the most important dimensions (contrary to pipes) together with its mechanical properties (yield, tensile strength, and elongation) are key.

Steel Tube

The outside diameter and the wall thickness of a tube (“tube OD”) are expressed in inches or millimeters; the difference between the outside diameter and the wall thickness, multiplied by two, defines the inside diameter of the tube.

In terms of pipe vs tube pricing, steel tubes are generally more expensive than steel pipe due to their stricter manufacturing tolerances and mills productivity (tons produced by the hour). The most important physical properties of steel tubes are the hardness, the tensile strength, and highly precise dimensions.

 

TOP 10 DIFFERENCES PIPE VS TUBE

To summarize the difference between pipe and tube and the pipe meaning vs. tube meaning

PIPE VS TUBE: DIFFERENCE AREAS PIPE TUBE
1 Key Dimensions The most important dimension for a pipe is the inside diameter (ID), expressed in NPS (nominal pipe size) or DN (nominal diameter), which defines its fluid conveyance capacity. The NPS does not match the true inside diameter, it is a rough indication The most important dimensions for a steel tube are the outside diameter (OD) and the wall thickness (WT). These parameters are expressed in inches or millimeters and express the true dimensional value of the hollow section.
2 Wall Thickness The thickness of a steel pipe is designated with a “Schedule” value (the most common are Sch. 40, Sch. STD., Sch. XS/XH, Sch. XXS). Two pipes of different NPS and same schedule have different wall thicknesses in inches or millimeters. The wall thickness of a steel tube is expressed in inches or millimeters. For tubing, the wall thickness is measured also with a gage nomenclature (BWG, SWG).
3 Tubular Shape Round only Round, rectangular, square, oval
4 Production range Extensive (up to 80 inches and above) Narrower range for tubing (up to 5 inches), larger for steel tubes for mechanical applications
5 Tolerances (straightness, dimensions, roundness, etc) Tolerances are set, but rather loose Steel tubes are produced to very strict tolerances. Tubulars undergo several dimensional quality checks, such as straightness, roundness, wall thickness, surface, during the manufacturing process.
6 Production Process Pipes are generally made to stock with highly automated and efficient processes, i.e. pipe mills produce on a continuous basis and feed distributors stock around the world. Tubes manufacturing is more lengthy and laborious
7 Delivery time Can be short Generally longer
8 Market price Relatively lower price per ton than steel tubes Higher due to lower mills productivity per hour, and due to the stricter requirements in terms of tolerances and inspections
9 Materials Wide range of materials Tubing is available in carbon steel, low alloy, stainless steel and nickel-alloys; steel tubes for mechanical applications are mostly of carbon steel
10 End Connections The most common are beveled and plain ends Threaded and grooved ends are available for quicker connections on site

 

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What are the risks of natural gas pipeline construction? http://www.abtersteel.com/techinical-info/what-are-the-risks-of-natural-gas-pipeline-construction/ Fri, 03 Aug 2018 14:27:05 +0000 http://www.abtersteel.com/?p=4334 Abstract: The construction of long-distance transportation natural gas pipeline system is to achieve the purpose of long-distance pipeline transportation of natural gas, so that users along the line can obtain the required gas volume to meet the needs of users.       The construction of long-distance transportation natural gas pipeline system is to achieve the purpose of long-distance pipeline transportation of natural gas, so that users along the line can obtain the required gas volume to meet the needs of users. The procedures for pipeline construction are complicated. Long-distance pipeline systems are generally buried pipelines. Pipe trenches need to be dug. For […]

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Abstract: The construction of long-distance transportation natural gas pipeline system is to achieve the purpose of long-distance pipeline transportation of natural gas, so that users along the line can obtain the required gas volume to meet the needs of users.

      The construction of long-distance transportation natural gas pipeline system is to achieve the purpose of long-distance pipeline transportation of natural gas, so that users along the line can obtain the required gas volume to meet the needs of users. The procedures for pipeline construction are complicated. Long-distance pipeline systems are generally buried pipelines. Pipe trenches need to be dug. For special pipeline systems such as rivers and residential areas, optimization design is needed to ensure the quality of pipeline construction and to extend pipeline use. Life expectancy to ensure safe and smooth delivery of natural gas. The key technology is the welding technical measures of the pipeline. According to the conveying distance of the long-distance pipeline, the welding pipeline forms a continuous hydraulic system to ensure the quality of the welding construction, and the welding quality is checked to avoid welding defects. The cathodic protection design of the pipeline system is carried out to reduce the corrosion of the pipeline. According to the requirements of the design drawings, the pipe valve, elbow and other equipment are connected to realize the effect of the distribution and meet the needs of long-distance pipeline transportation of natural gas.

      Risk identification of long-distance natural gas pipelines

      (1) The nature of the transport of natural gas.

The risk we refer to refers to the combination of the possibility and consequences of a specific hazard event. The root cause and form of the hazard hazard are identified through hazard identification, and reasonable prevention and control measures are formulated according to the nature. The medium transported by the pipeline is natural gas. The main component of natural gas is methane, which is flammable. Once the pipeline leaks, it will spread rapidly and easily cause explosion and combustion. When the natural gas content of the air reaches a certain proportion, it will explode in the fire, causing casualties and property losses.

      (2) What is the main construction risk?

      First, an irresistible natural disaster occurs. Natural gas encounters earthquakes, mudslides, ice, floods, landslides, etc. during the transportation process, which damages the body of the natural gas pipeline, causing the pipeline to break or be damaged, resulting in natural gas leakage. This hazard is huge and unpredictable. We need to fully understand the local natural conditions and weather conditions in construction and pipeline operations, and familiar with the characteristics of soil vegetation, water protection facilities, weather changes, and minimize the impact of natural disasters.

      Second, third-party damage, man-made unconscious destruction, theft, close fire, illegal construction, terrorist attacks and other pipeline accidents. By observing the living and production environment around the station and the line to determine whether there are risk factors that endanger the station and the line.

      The third is illegal operation. Due to the nature of pipeline construction, high risk such as restricted space, excavation work, high-altitude operation, mobile hoisting operation, pipeline opening, temporary power consumption, hot work, etc., due to the characteristics of field construction, The impact of various extreme climatic conditions and complex geological conditions on safety is almost always present. The violation of regulations and illegal operation of personnel may cause major accidents in pipelines and stations. Through safety production rules and regulations to check whether there are dangers in various operational behaviors.

      Fourth, corrosion, corrosion of pipelines, equipment, and installations in the surrounding environment may cause large-scale leakage of natural gas pipelines, station natural gas, and fire and explosion accidents. Determine the risk of potential hazards by regularly checking the wall thickness of the pressure vessel equipment and piping and the external corrosion of the equipment.

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Pipeline for Sour Servic http://www.abtersteel.com/seamless-steel-pipe/pipeline-for-sour-servic/ Thu, 19 Jul 2018 02:25:16 +0000 http://www.abtersteel.com/?p=4330 Sour service line pipe Product specifications: outer diameter: Φ17.1mm~Φ219.1mm; wall thickness: 2.3mm~40.0mm Product Features Short description: Line pipe is mainly used to transport oil and natural gas pipelines, mainly used in oil, natural gas, chemical industry, electric power Equipment and other industries.  Line pipe is mainly used to transport oil and natural gas pipelines, mainly used in oil, natural gas, chemical, power equipment and other industries.    With the increasing proportion of sulfur-containing oil and gas wells in the exploitation of domestic and international oilfields, the pipelines in this type of oil wells from the mining to the desulfurization station […]

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Sour service line pipe
  • Product specifications: outer diameter: Φ17.1mm~Φ219.1mm; wall thickness: 2.3mm~40.0mm
    Product Features Short description:
    Line pipe is mainly used to transport oil and natural gas pipelines, mainly used in oil, natural gas, chemical industry, electric power Equipment and other industries.

 Line pipe is mainly used to transport oil and natural gas pipelines, mainly used in oil, natural gas, chemical, power equipment and other industries. 

  With the increasing proportion of sulfur-containing oil and gas wells in the exploitation of domestic and international oilfields, the pipelines in this type of oil wells from the mining to the desulfurization station contain a large amount of sulfides, which puts higher requirements on the service performance of the pipelines. Sour service line pipes are the preferred choice for these environments. Changbao Sour service line pipe product category covers all steel grades of API 5L standard, meets customers’ different use strength requirements, and provides customers with satisfactory pre-sales and after-sales service.

Main grade or steel grade: 

PSL1 steel pipe tensile performance requirements

Steel pipe grade

Seamless steel pipe

 

Yield strength Rt0.5/MPa

Tensile strength Rm/MPa

L175 or A25

≥175

≥310

L175P or A25P

≥175

≥310

L210 or A

≥210

≥335

L245R or BR
     L245 or B

≥245

≥415

L290R or X42R

 L290 or X42

≥290

≥415

L320 or X46

≥320

≥435

L360 or X52

≥360

≥460

L390 or X56

≥390

≥490

L415 or X60

≥415

≥520

L450 or X65

≥450

≥535

L485 or X70

≥485

≥570

PSL2 steel pipe tensile performance requirements

       Steel pipe grade

Seamless steel pipe

Yield strength Rt0.5/MPa

Tensile strength Rm/MPa

Yield ratio Rt0.5/Rm

L245R or BR
       L245N or BN
       L245Q or BQ

245~450

415~760

≤0.93

L290R or X42R
       L290N or X42N
       L290Q or X42Q

290~495

415~760

≤0.93

L320N or X46N
       L320Q or X46Q

320~525

435~760

≤0.93

L360N or X52N
       L360Q or X52Q

360~530

460~760

≤0.93

L390N or X56N
       L390Q or X56Q

390~545

490~760

≤0.93

L415N or X60N
       L415Q or X60Q

415~565

520~760

≤0.93

L450Q or X65Q

450~600

535~760

≤0.93

L485Q or X70Q

485~635

570~760

≤0.93

L555Q or X80Q

555~705

625~825

≤0.93

Main grades or grades of service products in Souric environments: BNS/X42NS/X46NS/X52NS   BQS/42QS/46QS/52QS/56QS/X60S/65QS/70QS
  

Product implementation standard  GB/T9711-2011 “Steel pipe for oil and gas industrial pipeline transportation system”;   API SPEC 5L “Pipeline steel pipe specification”

Characteristics of Sour service products:  Changbao Sour service pipeline, using low-sulfur high-purity steel and calcification treatment, the company uses CPE or Assel rolling process to roll seamless steel pipe, the process strictly controls the product size. After heat treatment, the performance of the product fully meets the API 5L standard performance index, and has its own HIC, SSC laboratory. In addition to the standard test, a random sampling test is carried out to ensure the corrosion resistance of the manufactured products.

Product use environment  Sour service line pipe is mainly for Sour oil and gas exploration and development environment, in order to solve the problem of cracking and leakage caused by anti-sulfide stress corrosion cracking and hydrogen-induced cracking ability of ordinary conveying pipe under Souric service environment. Generally applicable to oil and gas transportation environment close to surface temperature, CO 2 partial pressure less than 0.2MPa, and H 2 S partial pressure greater than 0.0003MPa.

 Product specification range: 

  Outer diameter: Φ17.1mm~Φ219.1mm; wall thickness: 2.3mm~40.0mm.

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Steel Pipe Coating Solution http://www.abtersteel.com/knowledge/steel-pipe-coating-solution/ Thu, 19 Jul 2018 02:14:38 +0000 http://www.abtersteel.com/?p=4327 Steel Pipe Coating Solution ABTER STEEL offers pipes with different coatings to meet the most stringent international standards for onshore and offshore oil and gas projects. In addition to our own coatings, we work closely with coatings manufacturers worldwide. Thanks to the know-how of coated pipes required for offshore operations, ABTER STEEL pipes can be used in ultra-deep waters and other difficult operations. We work with global coating manufacturers to offer a wide range of coating products such as: Corrosion resistant outer coating Inner coating Concrete weighting layer Thermal insulation coating We can also coat double-length pipe. In addition, we […]

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Steel Pipe Coating Solution

ABTER STEEL offers pipes with different coatings to meet the most stringent international standards for onshore and offshore oil and gas projects. In addition to our own coatings, we work closely with coatings manufacturers worldwide.

Thanks to the know-how of coated pipes required for offshore operations, ABTER STEEL pipes can be used in ultra-deep waters and other difficult operations.

We work with global coating manufacturers to offer a wide range of coating products such as:

Corrosion resistant outer coating
Inner coating
Concrete weighting layer
Thermal insulation coating
We can also coat double-length pipe. In addition, we offer custom coating services for accessories such as elbows and benders. We also offer coating accessories such as connector joints.

A new chapter in coating solutions in West Africa

In the past ten years, ABTER STEEL has applied pipe products in Nigeria’s offshore and onshore line pipe projects and implemented them in the most demanding environments such as Usan, Akpo, Bonge, Gbaran and Erha.

ABTER STEEL is now ready to offer a complete casing line and coating solution, manufactured in Nigeria, to service complex operations in West Africa.

ABTER STEEL and Prime Investment and Enterprise Services Ltd. reached an agreement to acquire a 40% stake in Nigerian Tube Coating Machines Corporation (PCN), the most powerful Nigerian coating manufacturer in the Freeport Zone of Enna. This partnership combines ABTER STEEL’s industrial know-how with PCN’s proven expertise and its influence in the local coatings industry.

Through this acquisition, ABTER STEEL was able to leverage the resources of Nigeria to provide the following coating services:

External anti-corrosion coating: FBE, 3PE and 3PP coatings for tubes up to 42″ in diameter
In-line coating
Negative buoyancy concrete weighting layer
External multilayer polymer thermal barrier coating 5LPPSynt
Sacrificial Bracelet Anode Assembly
Welding services (double, triple and quadruple joints)

Pipe external corrosion protection system

ABTER STEEL works with major international coatings companies to provide external corrosion protection for offshore line pipes using sintered epoxy and three-layer polyethylene/polypropylene anti-corrosion systems.

Fusion epoxy coating system

The fusion bonded epoxy (FBE) coating system is an external application of thermosetting resins for pipes. It is applied as a dry powder to the surface of the heated steel tube to form a coating having a thickness of 400-600 microns. Once the coating is applied and cured, the epoxy film will exhibit superior hardness and adhere well to the surface of the steel. The fusion bonded epoxy (FBE) coating has uniform surface properties and good chemical resistance.

The fusion bonded epoxy coating system provides protection at the right temperature (-40oC to 85oC) and has two features:

Bonded Epoxy Coatings Duality: Recommended for subsea pipelines and tapping operations in harsh environments. The fusion bonded epoxy coating has good impact resistance and wear resistance, and has good elasticity, which can prevent coating damage during pipeline transportation and construction.
Slip resistance of a sintered epoxy coating: This coating system forms a rough, non-slip surface on the pipe and subsequently forms a concrete coating.
Three-layer structure coating system polyethylene and polypropylene

The three-layer external corrosion protection system is formed by extruding a copolymer adhesive coating based on a high-performance sintered epoxy coating and finally extruding a polyethylene or polypropylene coating to a desired thickness.

This coating system protects the pipeline at the following operating temperatures:

Three-layer polyethylene: for temperature range: 40oC to 85oC
 Three layer polypropylene: for temperature range: -40oC to 110oC
In addition to the chemical properties and viscosity of epoxy powders, polyethylene coating systems also have physical and mechanical properties. The polypropylene coating system ensures performance at high temperatures.

Advantages of a three-layer structural coating system

Good corrosion resistance. When exposed to acidic or alkaline media, it ensures long life in highly corrosive soils
Strong adhesion to steel: 20 times more viscous than traditional plastic belt systems
Good cathode stripping test results
Good mechanical resistance
No leak coating: The coating formed by hot extrusion has a continuous shape, uniform thickness, no bubbles, no leak coating.
High dielectric resistance
Good bending performance in pipe laying applications
High water resistance: High-density polyethylene and polypropylene three-layer structure anti-corrosion layer system has low water permeability and can better isolate surrounding seawater compared with other coating systems.

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WATER PIPELINE JOINING METHODS AND PIPE INSTALLATION http://www.abtersteel.com/knowledge/water-pipeline-joining-methods-and-pipe-installation/ Sun, 08 Jul 2018 04:17:24 +0000 http://www.abtersteel.com/?p=4316 JOINING METHODS AND PIPE INSTALLATION This data sheet describes the most common joining methods of steel water mains and the most important phases of installation. Applications • water mains • sewage pipes   1. Trench, foundation and filling The trench is dug wide enough, according to Figure 1, so as to have enough working space on both sides of the pipeline. If necessary, a levelling course is laid on the bottom of the trench. It is to be at least 150 mm thick measured from the exterior bottom of the pipe (See Fig. 2). The max. allowed grain size of the […]

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JOINING METHODS AND PIPE INSTALLATION
This data sheet describes the most common joining methods of steel water mains and the most important phases of installation.
Applications • water mains • sewage pipes

 

1. Trench, foundation and filling

The trench is dug wide enough, according to Figure 1, so as to have enough working space on both sides of the pipeline. If necessary, a levelling course is laid on the bottom of the trench. It is to be at least 150 mm thick measured from the exterior bottom of the pipe (See Fig. 2). The max. allowed grain size of the natural stone material used for levelling is always 60 mm, while the max. allowed grain size of the mineral aggregate in direct contact with the pipe coating is 32 mm. No sharp-edged stones are allowed in the levelling layer, and frozen levelling material must not be used. If the subsoil is soft, the pipeline may have to be founded on grid or even on piles.

The entire length of the underside of each pipe must rest on the bottom of the trench except for a distance of about half a metre from the sleeve in both directions (See Fig. 3). Each pipe of the installed line must carry, in addition to its own weight, also the weight of the water and the backfill, as well as other possible external loads.
If support planks or the like are used in installing an earth-covered pipeline, they must be removed before filling in the trench. The initial fill material must meet the same requirements as the levelling course and must be compactable sandy moraine or moraine gravel around the bottom half of the pipe – silt and clay may also be used around the upper half. Fill material must not be dropped onto a pipe so that it moves or gets damaged. It must be placed as evenly as possible on both sides of the pipe and tamped underneath and along the sides minding the pipe’s coating, and finally compacted.

Figure-1.-Trench

 

Figure-2.-Filling-of-trench

Figure-3.-Trench-bottom-at-sleeve

The main principle in filling a trench is that pipes, especially joints, must have sufficient lateral support against overhead loads. Therefore, the initial fill along the sides is tamped mechanically halfway up the pipe in layers of about 30 cm to at least 90% Proctor density, ensuring, however, that the compaction does not lift the pipe up.

The degree of compaction must be determined by measurements. The vibration panel must at no time touch a pipe or fitting to avoid damage to coating. Mechanical compaction above the pipe is allowed only after 50 cm of fill has been placed on top (See Fig. 2). After final filling, there must be a layer of fill material at least one metre thick, measured from the top of the pipe, containing no stones or boulders more than 300 mm in diameter. Any stone or boulder in the final fill material must not be located closer to the pipe than its diameter. Excavated soils may be used outside traffic areas. A pipeline .

must always be plugged temporarily as installation is interrupted in order to prevent impurities from entering pipes. During installation, the water level in the trench must be kept low enough so that buoyancy will not move nor water damage the installed pipe. More detailed instructions on the installation of plastic coated pipings are provided in the municipal engineering regulations of each country. When installing pipes in areas where there are roads or railway lines, the instructions of the pertaining official are to be followed.

2. Joining methods

General

Pipe joints (Fig. 4) are used to join pipes and fittings into an integrated pipeline. Joints can be divided into two main types: tension-resistant and non-resistant ones. Joints may also be divided by applications as follows:

2.1 Butt joint

Used primarily in tension-resistant pressure lines such as oil, natural gas and district heating pipelines. Used in water pipelines especially with pipe sizes ≥ DN 600 when the joint can be repaired from the inside after welding. For a more detailed description, see Figure 6 on Page 5. A Welding collar is used to join new piping or a fitting to an existing line. Internal welding and completion of concrete lining require a manhole in connection with the joint. Installation of the welding collar is described in Figure 9.

2.2 DIN/G welded joint

Used in pipelines where easy installation of the tensionresistant joint and the possibility of making less than 1.0 degree bends are a must. Welded from the outside. Suits pipe diameters DN 400–900 pressure class PN16 and DN1000-1200 pressure class PN10. Only internal concrete lining is used with this type of sleeve, no painting is done. The DIN/G joint is manufactured at the works by incorporating a rubber ring in the concrete lining, which means there is no need to complete the internal concrete lining on site. The rubber ring prevents water from changing in the gap of the sleeve joint. For a more detailed description, see Section 3.2 and Figure 7.

2.3 OV welded joint

Used in water lines to facilitate installation and to allow 1.5 – 3.0 degree bends at joints. Since the joint is welded from the inside to make it tension resistant, it is suitable for diameters ≥ DN 600 and pressures up to 20 bar. For a more detailed description, see Section 3.3 and Figure 8.

2.4 Flanged joint

Flanged joints are widely used in industry. With underground pipes, flanged joints are used e.g. in connection with valves and manholes. For a more detailed description, see Section 3.4 and Figure 10. The joints can be sealed e.g by Klinger-KGS gaskets.

2.5 Coupling joint

Steel pipes may also be joined by various mechanical pipe couplings such as those manufactured by Straub, VikingJohnson and Victaulic. Then, the ends of pipes are lathed and external weld seams are ground to fit the couplings. For a more detailed description, see Section 3.5.

2.6 Welding collar

A welding collar is used when connecting new piping or a single new component to an existing piping. The installation of a welding collar is described in Figure 9. When a single new component is installed, it must also have a manhole so that the internal lining can be repaired. The welding collar can be welded only externally up to pressure class PN10, but it also requires internal welding in pressure class PN16. After welding, the internal lining and external corrosion protection coating are completed.

2.7 Selection of joining method

Welding is normally used with underground installation. Welded sleeve joints facilitate installation and allow small bends without angular pipe fittings. In subsoils of low bearing capacity (clay and silt), a welded joint is more secure than a coupling joint. In case a coupling joint is used in weak soils, it is recommended to use sturdier couplings.The coupling must be supported on a concrete slab or the like to eliminate shear stresses. At high water pressures (≥ 10 bar) it is also advisable to use a sturdier type of coupling. The teeth of tension-resistant, toothed couplings damage external protective coatings. Therefore, their use should be limited mainly to dry, indoor installations where external corrosion protection is not needed.

Tensionresistant flanged joints are used in institutional and industrial installations to facilitate disassembly. Tensionresistant joints must always be used in submerged installation. When using DIN/G type sleeves, pipes are only lined with concrete internally, no painting is done.

3. Installation


Plastic end covers
The plastic covers at the ends of the pipes shall not be removed until shortly before installation in order to avoid excessive curing or soiling of the internal concrete lining during storage. In summer, the external black PUR coating on the pipe parts is covered with white plastic for the entire storage period, as heat from the sun will soften the coating.When removing the plastic covers, a visual inspection of the ends, internal surfaces and sleeves of the pipes is performed. Hairline cracks in the concrete lining which are caused by excessive curing can be removed in summer by wetting the concrete with household water now and again.

3.1. Butt joint

General

Tension-resistant butt joints (Fig. 6) are used with the entire range of pipe sizes. The joints are welded from the outside with basic electrodes. Working temperature need not be raised. The joints as such do not allow bends, but the end of a pipe can be cut at an angle, or a pipeline with internal concrete lining can be bent safely, if necessary, to the minimum radius of curvature given in the table.

Welding

The welder must have at least the competence required by Standard EN 9606-1. The weld quality class is set out in Standard EN ISO 5817, Class C.Pipes are adjusted for welding. The weld cavity-reducing effect of tacking and welding must be considered in determining the width of the weld cavity (2 – 4 mm). After tacking, the joints are welded in 2 – 3 runs with a dry basic electrode, such as Esab OK 48.00, Elga P48, Böhler Fox EV 48, Filarc 35 or equivalent. The thickness of the electrode is determined by the pipe wall thickness, the mode of welding, the type of run and welding position, as well as the competence of the welder. The welding values are selected as per instructions of the welding consumable suppliers. Running of a welding procedure test in accordance with EN ISO 15614-1 is recommended prior to commencing welding.

Control of welded joint

All welds are to be inspected at least visually. Beginning and end defects, undercuts, cracks, etc. surface defects are ground or repaired by welding. Additionally recommendation is that at least 10% of welds are examined by magnetic particle testing. Basic requirement is also that at least 5 welds of every welder are to be examined and if any welds fails, test frequency will be higher. Moreover, the tightness of the joints is tested by water pressure test after the pipeline is completed.

Completion of internal concrete lining

Internal concrete lining is completed with pipe sizes ≥ DN 600. After welding, loose rust and weld slag and Figure 6. Butt joint All dimensions in millimetres. min. 50 Shrinkable sleeve or corrosion protection tape DIN 30670 N-n 6 any possible concrete coming off the joints is brushed off the interior surface. In winter conditions the joint area is heated with a gas flame. The joint area is first moistened and then coated with mortar that consists of equal parts of sand and cement (SR cement). The sand is to be sufficiently clean with a grain size of 0.125 – 1.5 mm. Enough water is added to make a fairly stiff mortar. Only the amount of mortar and cement used in one hour is to be mixed. The mortar is spread with a trowel to the level of the original lining. After about 2 hours the area is rubbed with a wet sponge. Under site conditions, concrete requires at least 5 days to cure. If possible, the joint area should be kept damp and at over +5 ºC during that period. In winter conditions a warm air blower can be used for heating. Frost proof cement must not be used as it contains water-soluble admixtures unsuitable for drinking water applications.

Completion of internal painting

Internal painting is completed with pipe sizes ≥ DN 600. The joint area is treated as per instructions of the paint manufacturer. Completion of external coating Bare steel surfaces are cleaned with a steel brush (degree of cleanness St 2), dried with liquid gas flame and anticorrosive painted (example Temaprime EE) before sleeve will be added. The PE coating is roughened over a distance of about 100 mm. The cleaned and warmed joint area is protected by a heat-shrinkable sleeve or corrosion protection tape (Canusa, Raychem, Denso, Stopaq etc.) as per manufacturer’s instructions.

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Aluminum Brass Tubes Inspection report http://www.abtersteel.com/inspection-report/aluminum-brass-tubes-inspection-report/ Fri, 29 Jun 2018 09:39:42 +0000 http://www.abtersteel.com/?p=4297   INSPECTION REPORT Report No.: MIL 100604-01A1 Issued on: Jul 12th, 2010 Inspection Time: Jul 13th, 2010 P.O. No.100707   Inspection Subject: Aluminum Brass Tubes     Specification: ASTM B111 C68700 Inspector : Lin Gaojie Visit Summary: Scope of Inspection Visual inspection. Weight verification and packaging Physical test Dimension Documents Part photo Results of inspection to MIL 100604-01A1 Process Verification Visual Inspection The tubes were good except some imperfection, and the details were as followed: The outside surface of tubes was bright; Tube ends have squared cut and deburred; Most of the straightness of accepted tubes can be considered to […]

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INSPECTION REPORT

Report No.: MIL 100604-01A1

Issued on: Jul 12th, 2010 Inspection Time: Jul 13th, 2010

P.O. No.100707

 

Inspection Subject:

Aluminum Brass Tubes

 

 

Specification:

ASTM B111 C68700

Inspector

:

Lin Gaojie

Visit Summary:

Scope of Inspection

  • Visual inspection.
  • Weight verification and packaging
  • Physical test
  • Dimension
  • Documents
  • Part photo

Results of inspection to MIL 100604-01A1

  • Process Verification
    1. Visual Inspection

The tubes were good except some imperfection, and the details were as followed:

  • The outside surface of tubes was bright;
  • Tube ends have squared cut and deburred;
  • Most of the straightness of accepted tubes can be considered to be good after measuring the tubes

Photo attachment as below

For checking

 

Tube surface

Tube ends

  1. Packaging inspection and weight verification
  • The tubes were bundled and packaged by poly bags;
  • There are simple labels on the end of the package, and the manufacturer labels will be removed before loading;
  • The weight is in the following

 

Item No.

Size / mm

weight / Kg

Quantity / pcs

Kg/pc

1

10*0.5*4000

34

70

0.486

2

16*1*4000

332

210

1.581

3

30*2*4000

598

100

0.598

Photo attachment as below

Packaging

Weighing

 

  1. Physical test verification

The tension test of 7 test pieces and hardness test of 4 test pieces were qualified. The detailed data is in the following table;

 

Item No.

Size

Temper

Rm  ≥375 MPa

Elongation ≥20%

HR30T ≥53

1

6*1*4000

 

 

 

 

 

H58

421

27.8

/

2

10*0.5*4000

476

19.3

55.8

3

16*1*4000

437

26.7

/

4

30*2*4000

421

27.8

67.4

5

38*1*4000

399

36.1

/

6

50*1*4000

414

28

64.8

7

50*2*4000

429

34.1

64.4

Remarks: The elongation is provided by manufacturer but not specified in the standard.

Photo attachment as below

Tension test

Test pieces

 

Hardness test

Test pieces

 

 

  1. Dimension inspection

The tubes were qualified according to ASTM B251, and the detailed data is in the following table.

 

Item No.

 

Size / mm

Inspection Amount / pc

Average OD

/ mm

 

WT / mm

 

Length / mm

Roundness

/ mm

1

6*1*4000

5

5.96

0.98~1

4004~4006

0.03

2

10*0.5*4000

5

9.99

0.45~0.52

4003~4004

0.02

3

30*1*4000

5

29.98~30.01

0.91~1.09

4005~4006

0.05

4

30*2*4000

5

30.01~30.07

1.83~2.18

4004

0.03

5

50*1*4000

5

50~50.03

0.93~1.04

4002~4004

0.06

6

50*2*4000

5

50.04~50.06

1.87~2.12

4003~4004

0.04

Photo attachment as below

Measuring OD

Measuring WT

Measuring length

 

  • Review of Documentation

 The mill provided Mill Test Certificate.

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Copper Fittings inspection report http://www.abtersteel.com/inspection-report/copper-fittings-inspection-report/ Fri, 29 Jun 2018 07:44:52 +0000 http://www.abtersteel.com/?p=4269   INSPECTION REPORT Report No.: MIL 100513-01A2 Issued on: Jun 18th, 2010 Inspection Time: Jun 13-15th, 2010 P.O. No.4300000743   Inspection Subject: Copper Fittings Supplier: Metals International Limited         Inspector:               Lin Gaojie Specification: As per Sample       Visit Summary: Scope of Inspection Visual inspection. Quantity and weight Dimension Packaging Documents Part photo   Results of inspection to MIL 100513-01A2 Process Verification Visual Inspection The fittings were good and the details were as followed: 1)  All fittings were marked with  “MIL” Photo attachment as below   Pipe coupling copper equal Pipe coupling copper reducing   Pipe elbow copper equal 90° […]

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INSPECTION REPORT

Report No.: MIL 100513-01A2

Issued on: Jun 18th, 2010 Inspection Time: Jun 13-15th, 2010

P.O. No.4300000743

 

Inspection Subject:

Copper Fittings

Supplier:

Metals International Limited         Inspector:               Lin Gaojie

Specification:

As per Sample

 

 

 

Visit Summary:

Scope of Inspection

  • Visual inspection.
  • Quantity and weight
  • Dimension
  • Packaging
  • Documents
  • Part photo

 

Results of inspection to MIL 100513-01A2

  • Process Verification
    1. Visual Inspection

The fittings were good and the details were as followed:

1)  All fittings were marked with  “MIL” Photo attachment as below

 

Pipe coupling copper equal

Pipe coupling copper reducing

 

Pipe elbow copper equal 90°

Pipe elbow copper equal 45°

End cap copper

Pipe tee copper

Pipe trap copper P’type

Pipe saddle 2 hole

 

 

  1. Quantity and weight verification

1) The quantity was sufficient Photo attachment as below

Weighing

 

  1. Dimension inspection

The fittings were qualified according to standard C, though the plustolerance of some fittings with the size upon 3-1/8“ was 0.2mm more than ASME B16.22.

Photo attachment as below

Verifying the plug guage

Inspecting the inside diameter

 

measuring WT

 

  1. Packaging inspection

The fittings were encapsulated by the poly bags first, then put into cartons, and bundled by polywood tray. Details as below:

  • The packaging was on the witness of us
  • There was one label on each poly bag and carton;
  • The shipping mark was pasted on the tray;
  • All cartons were marked with “MIL”

Photo attachment as below

 

 

Poly bag with label

Fittings in the carton

Carton with label

 

 

Carton being piled on the tray

Finished polywood tray

Shipping mark

“MIL”on carton

 

  • Review of Documentation

Raw Material Test Certificate.

 

  • Conclusions:

The inspection results shows that the copper fittings are in full comformity with the client’s samples.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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API 5L X 52 Carbon Steel LSAW Pipe http://www.abtersteel.com/welded-steel-pipe/lsaw-steel-pipe/api-5l-x-52-carbon-steel-lsaw-pipe/ Thu, 28 Jun 2018 08:27:46 +0000 http://www.abtersteel.com/?p=4266  Carbon Steel API 5L Gr. X52 LSAW Pipe or linepipe supplies that your company needs for use in the oil or natural gas industries. API 5L Line Pipe Specifications for these pipes regulate usage for standard Grade A and Grade B pipes, with Grade X indicating stronger variants for drilling, production and transport requirements for offshore, arctic, deep well or harsher environments. Longitudinally welded steel pipes / Carbon Steel API 5L Gr. X52 LSAW Pipe are used in onshore and offshore oil and gas pipelines requiring critical service, high performance and tight tolerances. API 5L grade X52 (L360 pipe) the […]

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 Carbon Steel API 5L Gr. X52 LSAW Pipe or linepipe supplies that your company needs for use in the oil or natural gas industries. API 5L Line Pipe Specifications for these pipes regulate usage for standard Grade A and Grade B pipes, with Grade X indicating stronger variants for drilling, production and transport requirements for offshore, arctic, deep well or harsher environments. Longitudinally welded steel pipes / Carbon Steel API 5L Gr. X52 LSAW Pipe are used in onshore and offshore oil and gas pipelines requiring critical service, high performance and tight tolerances.

API 5L grade X52 (L360 pipe) the yield strength minimum at 52220 Psi 360 Mpa, it’s the meaning that we call this grade in the API 5L X52 or L360. Tensile strength is 66700 Psi and 460 Mpa.

Material
Q235, Q345, A53B, A106B, API 5L B, X42, X46, X52, X60, X65 ST37.0, ST35.8, St37.2, St35.4/8, St42, St45, St52, St52.4 STP G38, STP G42, STPT42, STB42, STS42, STPT49, STS49

OD Size Range:
ERW: 0.375″ through 30″
HF: 0.840″ through 24″
DSAW/SAWL: 12.75″ through 144″

SMLS: 0.840″ through 26″
HSAW: 8.625″ through 144″

Standard:
ASTM A53, A106, API 5L, ASME B36.10M-1996
DIN1626, DIN1629, DIN17175, DIN 2448
JIS G3452, JIS G3454, JIS G3455, JIS G3456, JIS G3457, JIS G3461

Grade: ASTM A53, ASTM A106, ASTM A179, ASTM A192, ST35.8, ST37, ST42, ST52, E235, E355, S235JRH, S275JR, S355JOH, P235TR1, 10#, 20#, 45#, Q235, Q345

Surface Finishes: Bare, Oiled, Mill Varnish, Galv, FBE, FBE Dual, 3LPE, 3LPP, Coal Tar, Concrete Coating and Tape Wrap

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Difference Between SCH 40 and SCH 80 Steel pipe http://www.abtersteel.com/knowledge/difference-between-sch-40-and-sch-80-steel-pipe/ Sat, 16 Jun 2018 03:48:36 +0000 http://www.abtersteel.com/?p=4257 “Schedule 40” and “Schedule 80” refer to the thickness of the walls of pipes. “Schedule” is the standard of wall thickness that has been adopted by the American National Standards Institute. As per the Institute, the thickness of wall pipes varies from Schedule 10, Schedule 40, Schedule 80, and Schedule 160. Pipes with Schedule 40 come with standard weight, and pipes with schedule 80 come with extra strength. The materials used for making Schedule 40 and Schedule 80 come from the same material. Schedule 80 pipes have a thicker wall than Schedule 40 pipes. As such, Schedule 80 pipes are […]

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“Schedule 40” and “Schedule 80” refer to the thickness of the walls of pipes. “Schedule” is the standard of wall thickness that has been adopted by the American National Standards Institute. As per the Institute, the thickness of wall pipes varies from Schedule 10, Schedule 40, Schedule 80, and Schedule 160.

Pipes with Schedule 40 come with standard weight, and pipes with schedule 80 come with extra strength. The materials used for making Schedule 40 and Schedule 80 come from the same material.

Schedule 80 pipes have a thicker wall than Schedule 40 pipes. As such, Schedule 80 pipes are stronger than Schedule 40 pipes. Though both pipes are used in construction work, Schedule 40 is used more often. But if a stronger pipe was needed, then the engineers would go for Schedule 80 pipes. Schedule 80 pipes are used where the pipes have to be exposed. But if there is no need for any extra strength, Schedule 40 pipes are sufficient.

Steel Pipe Schedule Chart ANSI B36.10 & 36.19 (Unit in Inch)

Steel Pipe Dimensions Chart (Size Chart)

Steel Pipe Dimensions Chart (Size Chart)

Schedule 40 and Schedule 80 pipes are also different in their cost. As Schedule 80 pipes consist of more materials, the price is considerably higher than Schedule 40 pipes. Schedule 80 pipes are also more costly as the cost of production is greater.

When comparing the weight, Schedule 40 pipes come in less weight than Schedule 80 pipes. As such, Schedule 40 pipes are easier to install than Schedule 80 pipes.

If there is a need for a high water temperature or high-pressure pipe, Schedule 80 is the best as it can withstand a greater pressure and temperature than Schedule 40 pipes.

What is Steel Pipe Dimensions Schedule?

Steel pipe schedule is a indicating method represented by ASME B 36.10, and also used in many other standards, marked with “Sch”. Sch is the abbreviation of schedule, generally appearing in the American steel pipe standard, which is a prefix of a series number. For example, Sch 80, 80 is a pipe number from chart/table ASME B 36.10.

“Since the steel pipe main application is to transport the fluids under pressure, so their internal diameter is their critical size. This critical size is taken as nominal bore (NB). Therefore, if steel pipe carry the fluids with pressure, it is very important that pipe shall have enough strength and enough wall thickness. So wall thickness is specified in Schedules, which means the pipe schedule, abbreviated as SCH. Here ASME is the given standard and definition for the pipe schedule.”

The pipe schedule formula:

Sch.=P/[ó]t×1000
P is the Designed pressure, units in MPa;
[ó]t is Allowable stress of materials under design temperature, Units in MPa.

What does SCH mean for the steel pipe dimensions

As describing the steel pipe parameter, we usually use the pipe schedule, It is a method that represent pipe wall thickness with number. Pipe schedule ( sch. ) is not a wall thickness, but a wall thickness series. Different pipe schedule means different wall thickness for the steel pipe in the same diameter. The most frequently indications of schedule are SCH 5, 5S, 10, 10S, 20, 20S, 30, 40, 40S, 60, 80, 80S, 100, 120, 140, 160. The larger the table number, the thicker the surface pipe wall, the higher the pressure resistance.

Schedule 40, 80 steel pipe dimension means

If you are new in pipe industry, why you always see a schedule 40 or 80 steel pipe everywhere? What kind of material for these pipes?

As you have read above articles you know that Schedule 40 or 80 represent a pipe wall thickness, but why it always been searched by buyers?

Here is the reason:

Schedule 40 and 80 steel pipe as the common sizes that required in different industries, because of the generally pressure these pipes bear, they are always been asked for a large quantity.

The material standard for such thickness pipes has no limitations, you could ask sch 40 stainless steel pipe, like ASTM A312 Grade 316L; Or sch 40 carbon steel pipe, such as API 5L, ASTM A53, ASTM A106B, A 179, A252, A333 etc..

Summary:

Pipes with Schedule 40 come with a standard weight, and pipes with Schedule 80 come with extra strength.
Schedule 80 pipes are stronger than Schedule 40 pipes.
Though both pipes are used in construction work, Schedule 40 is used more often.
Schedule 80 pipes are used where the pipes have to be exposed. But if there is no need for any extra strength, Schedule 40 pipes are sufficient.
When comparing the weight, Schedule 40 pipes come in less weight than Schedule 80 pipes.
As Schedule 80 pipes consist of more materials, the price is considerably higher than Schedule 40 pipes.
If there is a need for a high water temperature or high-pressure pipe, Schedule 80 is the best as it can withstand a greater pressure and temperature than Schedule 40 pipes.

 

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The difference between ERW steel pipe and spiral steel pipe http://www.abtersteel.com/knowledge/the-difference-between-erw-steel-pipe-and-spiral-steel-pipe/ Sun, 03 Jun 2018 03:10:50 +0000 http://www.abtersteel.com/?p=4252 Steel pipes can be seen everywhere in our daily life. It is widely used in heating, water supply, oil and gas and other industrial liquids, which brings great convenience to our life and production. According to the tube forming technology, steel tubes can be roughly divided into the following four categories: seamless steel tubes, high-frequency welded tubes, LSAW tubes, and spiral submerged arc welded tubes. According to the form of the weld we can be divided into seamless steel pipe, ERW steel pipe and spiral steel pipe. We have made a corresponding comparison of ERW steel pipes and spiral steel […]

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Steel pipes can be seen everywhere in our daily life. It is widely used in heating, water supply, oil and gas and other industrial liquids, which brings great convenience to our life and production. According to the tube forming technology, steel tubes can be roughly divided into the following four categories: seamless steel tubes, high-frequency welded tubes, LSAW tubes, and spiral submerged arc welded tubes. According to the form of the weld we can be divided into seamless steel pipe, ERW steel pipe and spiral steel pipe. We have made a corresponding comparison of ERW steel pipes and spiral steel pipes in terms of different forms of welds.

1, production process
ERW steel pipe is a Spiral steel pipe. Usually divided into metric welded steel pipe, welded thin-walled pipe, transformer cooling oil pipe and so on. The ERW welded pipe has a simple production process, high production efficiency, low cost, and rapid development. Spiral steel pipe is a coiled steel pipe made from strip coils as the raw material, which is often warm extruded and welded by an automatic double wire double-sided submerged arc welding process.
The strength of the spiral welded pipe is generally higher than that of the ERW welded pipe. A narrower blank can be used to produce a larger diameter pipe, and a blank having a different diameter can be produced from a blank of the same width. During the forming process, the steel plate is uniformly deformed, the residual stress is small, and the surface is free of scratches. The processed spiral steel pipe has greater flexibility in the range of diameters and wall thicknesses, especially in the production of high-grade thick-walled pipes, especially small- and medium-caliber thick-walled pipes, which have unparalleled advantages over other technologies and can satisfy users. More requirements on the specifications of spiral steel pipe. The use of advanced double-sided submerged arc welding technology can achieve welding in the best position. It is not prone to defects such as misalignment, welding deviation and incomplete penetration, and it is easy to control the welding quality. However, compared with the ERW pipe of the same length, the length of the weld seam increases by 30 to 100%, and the production speed is low.

2, security analysis
ERW steel pipe is mainly subjected to residual stress caused by inhomogeneous cooling. Residual stress is the stress of internal self-phase equilibrium under no external force. Hot rolled section steel of various sections has such residual stress. The larger the section size of general steel, the residual The stress is also greater. Although the residual stress is self-balanced, it still has certain influence on the performance of steel components under external forces. For example, it may have adverse effects on deformation, stability, and fatigue resistance; after welding, The non-metallic inclusions inside the ERW steel pipe are pressed into thin slices, and the delamination phenomenon occurs. The delamination weakens the performance of the ERW steel pipe in the thickness direction, and there is a possibility of interlayer tearing when the weld seam shrinks. The local strain induced by weld shrinkage often reaches several times of the yield point strain, which is much larger than the strain caused by the load. In addition, the ERW welded pipe will inevitably have many T-welds, so the probability of welding defects is also greatly improved. Moreover, the welding residual stress at the T-weld is large, and the weld metal is often in a three-dimensional stress state, increasing the possibility of cracking.
Spiral submerged arc welded pipe spiral weld distribution, long weld, especially in the dynamic conditions of welding, the weld is too late to leave the molding point of cooling, easy to produce welding hot cracks. The direction of the crack is parallel to the weld and is at a certain angle to the axis of the steel tube, typically between 30-70°. This angle is just in line with the shear failure angle, so its bending, tensile, compressive and torsional resistance is far inferior to the LSAW pipe. At the same time, due to the limitation of the welding position, the resulting saddle shape and ridge-shaped welding seam influence Beautiful. In addition, during the construction process, the intersecting line welds at the spiral welded parent pipe joints split the spiral joints and generate larger welding stress, which greatly weakens the safety performance of the components. Therefore, the non-destructive testing of the spiral welded pipe joints should be strengthened. Ensure welding quality, otherwise spiral submerged arc welded pipe should not be used in important steel structure occasions.

3, the scope of application
LSAW pipe adopts double-side submerged arc welding process. Welding under static conditions, the quality of the weld is high, the weld is short, and the probability of defects is very small. The steel pipe expands through full-length, has a good pipe shape, and is precise in size. The steel pipe has a wide wall thickness range and a wide range of pipe diameters. It is suitable for supporting columns, ultra-large span building structures, such as buildings, bridges, dams, and offshore platforms, as well as wind-resistant and earthquake-resistant structures. Pole mast structure. Spiral steel pipe is a kind of steel commonly used in industry, construction and other industries. Mainly used in tap water projects, petrochemical industry, chemical industry, power industry, agricultural irrigation, urban construction.

In summary, we can see that the two different types of welded seam pipes have their own characteristics and have different advantages according to different applications.

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