abter steel pipe manufacturer, natural gas casing and tubing,seamless steel pipe,OCTG, http://www.abtersteel.com OCTG pipe,carbon steel pipe,seamless steel pipe ,erw pipe Thu, 02 Dec 2021 01:36:18 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=4.9.8 Terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviations for tubing and casing http://www.abtersteel.com/news/products-news/terms-definitions-symbols-and-abbreviations-for-tubing-and-casing/ Thu, 02 Dec 2021 01:36:18 +0000 http://www.abtersteel.com/?p=6330 Terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviations 1.1 Terms and definitions This International Standard adopts the terms and definitions listed in the heat treatment operation section of ASTM A941 and below. 1.1.1 accessory material Seamless standard casing or oil pipe, seamless thick-walled pipe or mechanical pipe, bar material or hot forged material used in the manufacture of accessories. 1.1.2 API threads Thread specified in API Spec 5B. 1.1.3 Carload The quantity of steel pipes loaded on the first wagon delivered by the steel pipe manufacturer. 1.1.4 casing The pipe that extends from the ground surface into the well to line the well […]

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Terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviations
1.1 Terms and definitions
This International Standard adopts the terms and definitions listed in the heat treatment operation section of ASTM A941 and below.
1.1.1 accessory material
Seamless standard casing or oil pipe, seamless thick-walled pipe or mechanical pipe, bar material or hot forged material used in the manufacture of accessories.
1.1.2 API threads
Thread specified in API Spec 5B.
1.1.3 Carload
The quantity of steel pipes loaded on the first wagon delivered by the steel pipe manufacturer.
1.1.4 casing
The pipe that extends from the ground surface into the well to line the well wall.
1.1.5 Casing and tubing accessory casing and tubing accessory
A section of pipe used in the pipe string to make the pipe string have complete mechanical and pressure properties and to help complete other tasks. For example: conversion joints, reducing short joints, short joints, outlet pipe couplings, wear-resistant joints, etc.
Note: The appendix does not include other pipe products defined in this International Standard or other ISO (API) specifications.
1.1.6 connection
Generic term for threaded connection of pipe components.
1.1.7 controlled cooling
Cool the tube from high temperature according to a predetermined method to avoid hardening, cracking, internal damage and achieve the desired microstructure or mechanical properties.
1.1.8 Coupling
A cylindrical barrel with internal thread for connecting two threaded pipes.
1.1.9 Coupling semi-finished products coupling blank
Used for the production of single coupling unthreaded material.
1.1.10 Coupling stock
Used to produce seamless thick-walled pipes or mechanical pipes for semi-finished couplings.
1.1.11 defect
Refers to a defect that is large enough to be a basis for adjudgement according to the provisions of this code.
1.1.12 electric-welded pipe
A tube with a longitudinal weld seam is formed by heating and pressure welding the edges of the steel plate through resistance or electric induction heating, without the need for filler metal.
1.1.13 handling tight
It is tight enough that it cannot be removed without using a pipe wrench.
1.1.14 furnace heat
A batch of charge, metal produced in one smelting cycle.
1.1.15 heat analysis
A chemical analysis sample report provided by a metal manufacturer.
1.1.16 imperfection
The discontinuities on the wall thickness of the product or on the surface of the product inspected by the NDE inspection method.
1.1.17 inspection
Measurement, test, inspection test, or other method of comparing products with usage requirements.
1.1.18 inspection lot inspection lot
The number of products specified as a certain inspection unit.
1.1.19 Inspection lot sample inspection lot sample
One or more products selected from the inspection lot on behalf of the inspection lot.
1.1.20 inspection lot size inspection lot size
The product quantity of an inspection lot.
1.1.21 interrupted quenching interrupted quenching
When the temperature of the tube itself is significantly higher than the quenching medium, the tube being cooled is taken out of the quenching medium.
1.1.22 Specification code 1 label 1
When ordering the tube, the dimensionless code of the specification or specified outer diameter.
1.1.23 Specification code 2 label 2
When ordering a tube, the dimensionless unit of weight per unit length.
1.1.24 root length
A section of the pipe, which can be flat-end, threaded or with thread and coupling, and its range shall meet the length range requirements of Table C.30 or Table E.30 of this standard.
1.1.25 Linear imperfection linear imperfection
Linear defects include seam, lap, crack, plug score, cut, and gouge, but are not limited to these defects.
1.1.26 manufacturer
Depending on the context, it can be one or several of the following situations: pipe manufacturer, heat treatment plant, thread processing plant, coupling manufacturer, pup joint manufacturer, or accessory manufacturer.
1.1.27 Non-linear imperfection
Non-linear defects include pits and round bottom indentations, but are not limited to these defects.
1.1.28 pipe
Refers to the general term for casing, tubing, plain-end casing liner and pup joints.
1.1.29 pipe mill
A manufacturer, company or group company that operates and manages the production of pipe facilities.
1.1.30 plain-end casing liner
Usually have a wall thickness greater than the specified wall thickness of J55, provided with no threaded casing.
1.1.31 Heat treatment plant processor
A manufacturer, company or group company that can heat-treat the pipes produced by the pipe manufacturer.
1.1.32 product
Refers to single or batch pipes, couplings, accessories, coupling blanks and coupling semi-finished products.
1.1.33 pup joint
A casing, tubing and flat-end casing liner shorter than the length range 1.
1.1.34 pup-joint material
Standard casing or tubing, thick-walled pipe or mechanical pipe, bar material used in the manufacture of short sections.
1.1.35 purchaser
The party responsible for requesting and paying for product orders.
1.1.36 quench crack
Cracks caused by stress during the transformation of austenite to martensite in steel.
Note: This transformation is a process accompanied by an increase in volume.
1.1.37 seamless pipe
The rolled steel pipe products have no welds.
Note: It is processed by steel in a hot state. If necessary, cold processing, heat treatment or a combination of these processing methods can be used to produce the desired shape, size and performance.
1.1.38 Plate with skelp
Hot-rolled steel strip used in the manufacture of electric welded pipes.
1.1.39 Special end-finish processing special end-finish
Threads whose type and characteristics, production specifications, dimensions, screw connections, and performance are beyond the scope of this international standard.
1.1.40 thread protector
Caps or bushings used to protect threads and seal during loading and unloading, handling and storage.
1.1.41 tubing
Put into the well as a pipe for liquid production or liquid injection.
1.1.42 upper critical temperature
Ar₃ refers to the critical temperature at which austenite begins to transform into ferrite during cooling.

1.2 Symbols and abbreviations
BC               partial trapezoidal threaded casing connection
Cᵥ                 Charpy V-notch minimum absorbed work
CVN           Charpy V-notch
D                 Specified outer diameter of pipe
D                Calculated inner diameter
EMI           electromagnetic inspection
EU             outer thickened tubing connection
EW            welding process
FBH          flat bottom hole
Brinell      hardness of HBW with tungsten carbide balls
HRC C      scale Rockwell hardness
ID              inner diameter
IJ               integral tubing connection
K                elongation calculation constant
LC              long round threaded sleeve connection
N               (heat treatment process) full length normalizing
N&T         Normalizing + Tempering
NDE         non-destructive testing
NU            non-thickening tubing connection
OD            outer diameter
PSL           product technical requirement level
Q               quenching + tempering
S                Seamless process (when not referring to the chemical element sulfur)
Sc              ANSI-NACE TM0177: 1996 Method B test minimum qualified value
SCC          special clearance coupling
SSC          Sulfide Stress Cracking
STC          short round threaded sleeve connection
t                Specified wall thickness
T&C          with thread and coupling
USC          U.S. customary unit
UT             ultrasonic inspection
W              Specified outer diameter of API threaded couplings other than special clearance couplings
Wc            Specified outer diameter of Wc API thread special clearance coupling
XC            Direct Connect Casing Connector
YSmax     specified maximum yield strength
YSmin     specified minimum yield strength

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What factors affect the performance of galvanized steel pipe http://www.abtersteel.com/news/products-news/what-factors-affect-the-performance-of-galvanized-steel-pipe/ Wed, 24 Nov 2021 01:25:28 +0000 http://www.abtersteel.com/?p=6322 Galvanized steel pipes are welded steel pipes with a hot-dip galvanized or electro-galvanized layer on the surface. Galvanizing can increase the corrosion resistance of the steel pipe and prolong the service life. Galvanized pipe has a wide range of uses. In addition to line pipes for conveying water, gas, oil and other general low-pressure fluids, it is also used as oil well pipes and oil pipes in the petroleum industry, especially offshore oilfields, as well as oil heaters and condensation for chemical coking equipment. Pipes for coolers, coal-distilled wash oil exchangers, pipe piles for trestle bridges, and pipes for support […]

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Galvanized steel pipes are welded steel pipes with a hot-dip galvanized or electro-galvanized layer on the surface. Galvanizing can increase the corrosion resistance of the steel pipe and prolong the service life. Galvanized pipe has a wide range of uses. In addition to line pipes for conveying water, gas, oil and other general low-pressure fluids, it is also used as oil well pipes and oil pipes in the petroleum industry, especially offshore oilfields, as well as oil heaters and condensation for chemical coking equipment. Pipes for coolers, coal-distilled wash oil exchangers, pipe piles for trestle bridges, and pipes for support frames in mine tunnels, etc.
The commonly said galvanized pipe, the use of galvanized pipe, the iron pipe used for gas and heating is also galvanized pipe. The galvanized pipe is used as a water pipe. After several years of use, a lot of rust and dirt are generated in the pipe, and the yellow water that flows out not only pollutes the sanitary ware. , And it is mixed with bacteria that breed on the uneven inner wall, and rust causes excessive heavy metal content in the water, which seriously endangers the health of the human body.

Performance impact
   (1) Carbon; the higher the carbon content, the higher the hardness of the steel, but the worse its plasticity and toughness.

  (2) Sulfur is a harmful impurity in steel. Steel with high sulfur content is prone to cracks when processed under high temperature and high pressure, which is usually called hot brittleness.
  (3) Phosphorus can significantly reduce the plasticity and toughness of steel, especially at low temperatures. This phenomenon is called cold brittleness. In high-quality steel, sulfur and phosphorus should be strictly controlled. On the other hand, low carbon steel has high sulfur and phosphorus content and is easy to cut, which is beneficial to improve the machining performance of steel.
   (4) Manganese; can improve the strength of steel, weaken and eliminate the adverse effects of sulfur, and improve the hardenability of steel. High-manganese high-alloy steel (high-manganese steel) has good wear resistance and other physical properties.
   (5) Silicon; it can increase the hardness of steel, but the plasticity and toughness are reduced. Electrical steel contains a certain amount of silicon, which can improve its soft magnetic properties.
   (6) Tungsten; can improve the red hardness and thermal strength of steel, and improve the wear resistance of steel.
  (7) Chromium can improve the hardenability and wear resistance of steel, and improve the corrosion resistance and oxidation resistance of steel.
In order to improve the corrosion resistance, the ordinary steel pipe (black pipe) is galvanized. Galvanized steel pipe is divided into hot-dip galvanized and electrical steel galvanized. The hot-dip galvanized layer is thick and the cost of galvanizing is low. Galvanized steel pipes can be used.

Anti-corrosion effect of hot-dip galvanized layer on galvanized steel pipe
   Galvanized steel pipe anticorrosive zinc has a negative electrode potential than iron. When zinc and iron form a micro battery, zinc is the anode and iron is the cathode. When it is corroded, the zinc is dissolved and the iron is not harmed. When the galvanized layer has small cracks or damage, the zinc will be in the form of a dedicated anode to prevent the steel at the crack or damage from rusting. This is the main feature of the galvanized layer being better than other coatings. When hot-dip galvanized steel pipe is dipped galvanized, the metallurgical bond between the zinc-iron alloy layer and the steel substrate and the zinc layer is stronger than the bond between paint and steel.
  The anticorrosive zinc layer of galvanized steel pipe has a shielding and protective effect on steel. Zinc forms a shielding layer on the outer surface of the steel substrate in the atmosphere or other environments. The corrosion process of zinc increases its ability to form a shielding layer. This is because zinc reacts with oxygen, carbon dioxide, and moisture in the air to form an anti-corrosion by-product basic zinc carbonate film.
The zinc-iron alloy layer between the substrate and the pure zinc layer contains 90% zinc, which has an electrochemical protection effect similar to that of zinc; the thicker the coating, the longer the service life, and the service life is basically proportional to the thickness .

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Introduction to basic knowledge of alloy structural steel http://www.abtersteel.com/news/products-news/introduction-to-basic-knowledge-of-alloy-structural-steel/ Tue, 16 Nov 2021 01:58:47 +0000 http://www.abtersteel.com/?p=6316 In addition to iron and carbon, steel is called alloy steel by adding other alloying elements. An iron-carbon alloy formed by adding an appropriate amount of one or more alloying elements on the basis of ordinary carbon steel. According to the different added elements and adopting appropriate processing technology, special properties such as high strength, high toughness, wear resistance, corrosion resistance, low temperature resistance, high temperature resistance, and non-magnetic properties can be obtained. The effects of the added elements are as follows: 1. Carbon (C): The carbon content in steel increases, the yield point and tensile strength increase, but the […]

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In addition to iron and carbon, steel is called alloy steel by adding other alloying elements. An iron-carbon alloy formed by adding an appropriate amount of one or more alloying elements on the basis of ordinary carbon steel. According to the different added elements and adopting appropriate processing technology, special properties such as high strength, high toughness, wear resistance, corrosion resistance, low temperature resistance, high temperature resistance, and non-magnetic properties can be obtained.
The effects of the added elements are as follows:

1. Carbon (C): The carbon content in steel increases, the yield point and tensile strength increase, but the plasticity and impact properties decrease. When the carbon content exceeds 0.23%, the welding performance of the steel deteriorates, so it is used for welding. Low-alloy structural steel generally does not contain more than 0.20% carbon. High carbon content will also reduce the atmospheric corrosion resistance of steel, and high-carbon steel in the open stock yard is easy to rust; in addition, carbon can increase the cold brittleness and aging sensitivity of steel.

2. Silicon (Si): Silicon is added as a reducing agent and deoxidizer during the steelmaking process, so the killed steel contains 0.15-0.30% silicon. If the silicon content in steel exceeds 0.50-0.60%, silicon is regarded as an alloying element. Silicon can significantly improve the elastic limit, yield point and tensile strength of steel, so it is widely used as spring steel. By adding 1.0-1.2% silicon to quenched and tempered structural steel, the strength can be increased by 15-20%. The combination of silicon and molybdenum, tungsten, chromium, etc., has the effect of improving corrosion resistance and oxidation resistance, and can produce heat-resistant steel. Low carbon steel containing 1-4% silicon has extremely high magnetic permeability and is used as silicon steel sheet in the electrical industry. The increase in the amount of silicon will reduce the welding performance of the steel.

3. Manganese (Mn): In the process of steelmaking, manganese is a good deoxidizer and desulfurizer. The general steel contains 0.30-0.50% manganese. When adding more than 0.70% to carbon steel, it is considered “manganese steel”. Compared with ordinary steel, it not only has sufficient toughness, but also has higher strength and hardness, improves the hardenability of steel, and improves the hot workability of steel. For example, the yield point of 16Mn steel is 40% higher than that of A3. Steel containing 11-14% manganese has extremely high wear resistance and is used in excavator buckets, ball mill linings, etc. The increase of manganese content weakens the corrosion resistance of steel and reduces the welding performance.

4. Phosphorus (P): In general, phosphorus is a harmful element in steel, which increases the cold brittleness of steel, deteriorates welding performance, reduces plasticity, and deteriorates cold bending performance. Therefore, the phosphorus content in steel is generally required to be less than 0.045%, and the steel requirement is lower.

5. Sulfur (S): Sulfur is also a harmful element under normal circumstances. It causes the steel to produce hot brittleness, reduces the ductility and toughness of the steel, and causes cracks during forging and rolling. Sulfur is also detrimental to welding performance, reducing corrosion resistance. Therefore, the sulfur content is generally required to be less than 0.055%, and the steel content is required to be less than 0.040%. Adding 0.08-0.20% sulfur to steel can improve machinability and is usually called free-cutting steel.

6. Chromium (Cr): In structural steel and tool steel, chromium can significantly improve strength, hardness and wear resistance, but at the same time reduce plasticity and toughness. Chromium can improve the oxidation resistance and corrosion resistance of steel, so it is an important alloy element of stainless steel and heat-resistant steel.

7. Nickel (Ni): Nickel can increase the strength of steel while maintaining good plasticity and toughness. Nickel has high corrosion resistance to acids and alkalis, and has anti-rust and heat resistance capabilities at high temperatures. However, as nickel is a relatively scarce resource, other alloying elements should be used as much as possible to substitute nickel-chromium steel.

8. Molybdenum (Mo): Molybdenum can refine the grain of steel, improve hardenability and thermal strength, and maintain sufficient strength and creep resistance at high temperatures (long-term stress and deformation at high temperatures, said Creep). The addition of molybdenum to structural steel can improve mechanical properties. It can also suppress the brittleness of alloy steel due to quenching. It can improve redness in tool steel.

9. Titanium (Ti): Titanium is a strong deoxidizer in steel. It can make the internal structure of steel compact, refine grain strength; reduce aging sensitivity and cold brittleness. Improve welding performance. Adding appropriate titanium to the chromium 18 nickel 9 austenitic stainless steel can avoid intergranular corrosion.

10. Vanadium (V): Vanadium is an excellent deoxidizer for steel. Adding 0.5% vanadium to the steel can refine the structure grains and improve the strength and toughness. The carbide formed by vanadium and carbon can improve the resistance to hydrogen corrosion under high temperature and high pressure.

11. Tungsten (W): Tungsten has a high melting point and high specificity, and is an expensive alloying element. Tungsten and carbon form tungsten carbide, which has high hardness and wear resistance. Adding tungsten to tool steel can significantly improve the red hardness and thermal strength, which can be used as cutting tools and forging dies.

12. Niobium (Nb): Niobium can refine the grains and reduce the overheating sensitivity and temper brittleness of steel, and increase the strength, but the plasticity and toughness are reduced. Adding niobium to ordinary low-alloy steel can improve the resistance to atmospheric corrosion and the corrosion resistance of hydrogen, nitrogen and ammonia at high temperatures. Niobium can improve welding performance. Adding niobium to austenitic stainless steel can prevent intergranular corrosion.

13. Cobalt (Co): Cobalt is a rare precious metal and is mostly used in special steels and alloys, such as hot-strength steel and magnetic materials.

14. Copper (Cu): WISCO uses Daye ore to smelt steel, which often contains copper. Copper can improve strength and toughness, especially atmospheric corrosion performance. The disadvantage is that it is easy to produce hot brittleness during hot working, and the plasticity is significantly reduced when the copper content exceeds 0.5%. When the copper content is less than 0.50%, it has no effect on weldability.

15. Aluminum (Al): Aluminum is a commonly used deoxidizer in steel. Adding a small amount of aluminum to the steel can refine the grains and improve the impact toughness, such as 08Al steel for deep drawing sheet. Aluminum also has oxidation resistance and corrosion resistance. The combination of aluminum and chromium and silicon can significantly improve the high-temperature non-skinning performance and high-temperature corrosion resistance of steel. The disadvantage of aluminum is that it affects the hot workability, welding performance and cutting performance of steel.

16. Boron (B): Adding a small amount of boron to steel can improve the compactness and hot rolling performance of steel, and increase its strength.

17. Nitrogen (N): Nitrogen can improve the strength, low temperature toughness and weldability of steel, and increase aging sensitivity.

18. Rare earth (Xt): Rare earth elements refer to 15 lanthanides with atomic numbers 57-71 in the periodic table. These elements are all metals, but their oxides are like “earth”, so they are customarily called rare earths. Adding rare earths to steel can change the composition, shape, distribution and properties of inclusions in steel, thereby improving various properties of steel, such as toughness, weldability, and cold workability. Adding rare earths to ploughshare steel can improve wear resistance.
Alloy structural steel is based on the carbon structure, with one or more elements less than 5% added. The addition of alloying elements to the steel firstly improves the hardenability of the steel, ensuring that the steel has good comprehensive mechanical properties after heat treatment, and has high strength and sufficient toughness.

1. According to the different heat treatment processes, it is roughly divided into:

(1) Quenched and tempered structural steel: Many important parts, such as shafts, connecting rods, important bolts, etc., mostly work under a variety of complex stresses such as large alternating stresses and impact loads, so higher strength is required Comprehensive mechanical properties of toughness and toughness. In order to meet the above requirements, steel parts must undergo quenching and high temperature tempering treatment (ie quenching and tempering treatment), quenching treatment to obtain martensite structure, and then high temperature tempering to obtain sorbite structure. The carbon content of quenched and tempered steel is between 0.3-0.5%. Low carbon content is not easy to harden, and the required strength cannot be obtained after tempering; high carbon content results in low toughness and brittle fracture occurs during use.

(2) Surface hardened steel: The finished parts can be treated with a certain type of hot plate to obtain a hard and wear-resistant surface layer and a flexible and appropriate heart. For example, in order to transmit torque, the gear must have sufficient strength, bear the impact load during the shift process, and require toughness. During the meshing process, the gear bears strong wear and has abrasion resistance. Therefore, the gear should have overall strength High and “hard and tough” performance.

2. According to the heat treatment process, there are mainly:

(1) Carburizing and quenching of used low-carbon steel: The carbon content is generally between 0.10-0.25% to ensure good toughness in the core of the part. Addition of <2% chromium, <4.5% nickel, 2% manganese, and 0.001-0.004% boron to the cemented steel used for carburizing can improve the hardenability of the steel and improve the structure and performance of the core of the part. The strength and plasticity of the carburized layer; sometimes a small amount of titanium, vanadium and other elements are added to refine the grains and prevent the effect of overheating during carburizing.

(2) Nitriding treatment: steel containing aluminum in composite steel, such as 38CrMoAL, belongs to nitriding steel. Aluminum can be combined with nitriding to form aluminum nitride, which increases surface hardness and wear resistance.

(3) High-frequency induction heating of carbon steel is used for surface quenching: alloy structural steel is divided into high-quality steel and high-quality steel (with “A” after the steel number) according to the quality of metallurgy; the purpose is divided into pressure processing (hot pressure processing or cold pressure) Processing) and cutting processing steel; according to the supply status is divided into non-heat treatment, normalizing, annealing or high temperature tempering.

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Basic knowledge about oil pipeline http://www.abtersteel.com/news/products-news/basic-knowledge-about-oil-pipeline/ Mon, 08 Nov 2021 01:53:27 +0000 http://www.abtersteel.com/?p=6310 Basic knowledge about oil pipeline 1. Explanation of special terms related to petroleum pipeline API: It is the abbreviation of American Petroleum Institute in English, and Chinese means American Petroleum Institute. OCTG: It is the abbreviation of Oil Country Tubular Goods in English, which means special oil pipes in Chinese, including product oil casing, drill pipe, drill collar, coupling, short joint, etc. According to statistics, for every one meter drilled, about 62kg of oil well pipe is required, including 48kg of casing, 10kg of tubing, 3kg of drill pipe, and 0.5kg of drill collar. Tubing: The tubing used in oil […]

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Basic knowledge about oil pipeline
1. Explanation of special terms related to petroleum pipeline
API: It is the abbreviation of American Petroleum Institute in English, and Chinese means American Petroleum Institute.
OCTG: It is the abbreviation of Oil Country Tubular Goods in English, which means special oil pipes in Chinese, including product oil casing, drill pipe, drill collar, coupling, short joint, etc. According to statistics, for every one meter drilled, about 62kg of oil well pipe is required, including 48kg of casing, 10kg of tubing, 3kg of drill pipe, and 0.5kg of drill collar.
Tubing: The tubing used in oil wells for oil production, gas production, water injection and acid fracturing.
Casing: A pipe used to line the borehole from the ground surface to prevent the well wall from collapsing.
Drill pipe: A pipe used in a wellbore.
Line pipe: a pipe used to transport oil and gas.
Coupling: Used to connect two threaded pipes and a cylindrical body with internal threads.
Coupling material: the pipe used to make the coupling.
API thread: the pipe thread specified in the API 5B standard, including tubing round thread, casing short round thread, casing long round thread, casing buttress thread, line pipe thread, etc.
Special buckle: non-API thread buckle type with special sealing performance, connection performance and other properties.
Failure: Deformation, fracture, surface damage and loss of original functions under specific service conditions. The main forms of tubing and casing failure are: collapse, slippage, rupture, leakage, corrosion, adhesion, wear and so on.

2. Petroleum related standards
API 5CT: Specification for Casing and Tubing
API 5D: Drill Pipe Specification
API 5L: Specification for line pipe
API 5B: Specification for processing, measurement and inspection of casing, tubing and line pipe threads
GB/T 9711.1: Technical delivery conditions of steel pipes for oil and natural gas industry Part 1: Grade A steel pipes
GB/T 9711.2: Technical delivery conditions of steel pipes for oil and natural gas industry Part 2: Grade B steel pipes
GB/T 9711.3: Technical delivery conditions of steel pipes for oil and natural gas industry Part 3: Grade C steel pipes.

3. Converted value between English system and metric system
1 inch (in) = 25.4 millimeters (mm)
1 foot (ft) = 0.3048 meters (m)
1 square inch (sp.in) = 645.16 square millimeters (mm2)
1 pound (lb) = 0.45359 kilogram (kg)
1 pound per foot (lb/ft) = 1.4882 kilograms per meter (kg/m)
1 pound per square inch (psi) = 6.895 kilopascals (kPa)
=0.006895 megapascals (Mpa)
1 foot pound (ft-lb) = 1.3558 Joules (J)

4. Classification of tubing
The tubing is divided into flat tubing (NU), thickened tubing (EU) and integral joint tubing. Flat tubing means that the end of the pipe is directly threaded and fitted with a coupling without thickening. Thickened tubing means that after the two pipe ends are thickened outside, they are then threaded and fitted with couplings. Integral joint tubing means that one end is passed through the inner thickened car external thread, the other end is passed through the outer thickened car internal thread, and it is directly connected without a coupling.

5. The role of tubing
① Extracting oil and gas: After the oil and gas well is completed and cemented, the oil pipe is placed in the oil layer casing to extract the oil and gas to the surface.
② Water injection: When the downhole pressure is not enough, water is injected into the well through tubing.
③ Steam injection: In the process of thermal recovery of heavy oil, heat insulation tubing should be used to inject steam into the well.
④ Acidification and fracturing: In the later stage of well drilling or in order to increase the production of oil and gas wells, it is necessary to input acidification and fracturing media or solidifications into the oil and gas layer, and the media and solidifications are transported through tubing.

6. Steel grade of tubing
Tubing steel grades are: H40, J55, N80, L80, C90, T95, P110.
N80 is divided into N80-1 and N80Q. The similarity between the two is the same tensile performance, and the difference between the two is the difference in delivery state and impact performance. N80-1 is delivered in the normalized state or when the final rolling temperature is greater than the critical When the temperature is Ar3 and the tension is reduced after air cooling, the normalizing can be replaced by hot rolling, and the impact energy and non-destructive inspection are not required; N80Q must be quenched and tempered (quenched and tempered) heat treatment, and the impact energy should meet the requirements of API 5CT, and Non-destructive inspection should be carried out.
L80 is divided into L80-1, L80-9Cr and L80-13Cr. Their mechanical properties and delivery status are the same. The difference lies in the use, difficulty of production and price. L80-1 is a common type, and L80-9Cr and L80-13Cr are high corrosion resistance tubing, which is difficult to produce and expensive, and is usually used in heavy corrosion oil wells.
C90 and T95 are divided into type 1 and type 2, namely C90-1, C90-2 and T95-1, T95-2.

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The difference between ERW, SSAW, LSAW http://www.abtersteel.com/news/products-news/the-difference-between-erw-ssaw-lsaw/ Tue, 02 Nov 2021 01:28:01 +0000 http://www.abtersteel.com/?p=6301 The production methods of seamless steel pipes are roughly divided into cross-rolling method (Mennesmann method) and extrusion method. The cross-rolling method (Mennesmann method) is to first pierce the tube blank with a cross-rolling roller, and then extend it with a rolling mill. This method has a fast production speed, but has high requirements on the machinability of the tube blank, and is mainly suitable for the production of carbon steel and low-alloy steel pipes. The extrusion method is to use a piercing machine to perforate the tube blank or steel ingot, and then use the extruder to extrude into a […]

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The production methods of seamless steel pipes are roughly divided into cross-rolling method (Mennesmann method) and extrusion method. The cross-rolling method (Mennesmann method) is to first pierce the tube blank with a cross-rolling roller, and then extend it with a rolling mill. This method has a fast production speed, but has high requirements on the machinability of the tube blank, and is mainly suitable for the production of carbon steel and low-alloy steel pipes.
The extrusion method is to use a piercing machine to perforate the tube blank or steel ingot, and then use the extruder to extrude into a steel pipe. This method is less efficient than the cross-rolling method and is suitable for the production of high-strength alloy steel pipes.
Both the cross-rolling method and the extrusion method must first heat the tube billet or steel ingot, and the produced steel tube is called a hot-rolled tube. Steel pipes produced by hot working can sometimes be cold worked as needed. There are two methods of cold working: one is the cold drawing method, which is to draw the steel tube through a pipe drawing die to make the steel tube gradually thinner and elongated; the other method is the cold rolling method, which is the invention of the Mennesmann brothers The hot rolling mill is used in cold working methods. The cold processing of seamless steel pipes can improve the dimensional accuracy and processing finish of the steel pipe, and improve the mechanical properties of the material.

Transmission steel pipes can be divided into seamless steel pipes (SML) according to different pipe making processes. They are mainly used as internal gathering pipes and small-diameter high-pressure natural gas transmission pipes in oil fields. The number of long-distance oil and gas pipelines is very small, and most of them are long-distance pipelines. It adopts three types: ERW, SSAW, and LSAW. The following table shows the process characteristics and quality performance comparison of several steel pipes:

Straight seam high frequency welded pipe (ERW) is divided into induction welding and contact welding according to different welding methods. It uses hot-rolled wide strip steel coils as raw materials, and undergoes pre-bending, continuous forming, welding, heat treatment, sizing, straightening, and Compared with spiral welded pipes, cutting and other processes have the advantages of short weld seam, high dimensional accuracy, uniform wall thickness, good surface quality, and high pressure resistance. However, the disadvantage is that only small and medium-caliber thin-walled pipes can be produced, and the weld is prone to gray spots. , Unfused, groove-like corrosion defects. At present, the more widely used areas are city gas, crude oil and refined oil transportation, etc.

Spiral submerged arc welded pipe (SSAW) is a strip steel coiled pipe whose advancing direction has a forming angle (adjustable) with the center line of the formed pipe. It is welded while forming, and its weld is spiral. The advantage is that the same specification of strip steel can be produced Steel pipes of various diameters have a large range of raw materials. The welding seam can avoid the principal stress and the stress is better. The disadvantage is that the geometrical size is poor. The length of the weld Welding defects such as slag inclusion and welding deviation, the welding stress is in the state of tensile stress. The general design code for long-distance oil and gas pipelines stipulates that spiral submerged arc welded pipes can only be used in Category 3 and Category 4 areas. In foreign countries, this process is improved and the raw material is changed to steel plate to separate the forming and welding. After pre-welding and precision, and cold expansion after welding, the welding quality is close to UOE pipe. At present, there is no such process in China. It is a spiral pipe in China. The direction of plant improvement. The spiral pipe used in the “West-East Gas Pipeline” is still produced according to the traditional technology, but the pipe end has been expanded in diameter. The United States, Japan, and Germany generally reject SSAW and believe that SSAW should not be used on the main trunk line; Canada and Italy use SSAW in some cases, and Russia uses SSAW in a small amount, and they have formulated very strict supplementary conditions. Due to historical reasons, most domestic trunk lines still use SSAW. .

  Longitudinal submerged arc welded pipe (LSAW) is produced by using a single medium and thick plate as raw material, pressing (rolling) the steel plate in a mold or forming machine into a tube blank, using double-sided submerged arc welding and expanding the diameter. The finished product has a wide range of specifications, and the weld has good toughness, plasticity, uniformity and compactness. It has the advantages of large pipe diameter, pipe wall thickness, high pressure resistance, low temperature resistance and strong corrosion resistance. When constructing high-strength, high-toughness, and high-quality long-distance oil and gas pipelines, most of the steel pipes required are large-diameter thick-walled LSAW pipes. According to API standards, in large-scale oil and gas pipelines, when passing through Class 1 and Class 2 areas such as alpine areas, seabeds, and densely populated urban areas, LSAW pipes are the only designated applicable pipe type. According to different molding methods, it can be divided into:

  UOE welded pipe: After the single steel plate is pre-bent at the edge, it is U-shaped, O-shaped, internal welding, external welding, mechanical cold expansion and other processes;

  JCOE welded pipe: Pre-welding, forming, and cold expanding after welding according to “J-C-O-E”;

  HME welded pipe: It is formed by the mandrel rolling method according to “C-C-O”, and after welding, it is cold-expanded and other processes

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45# seamless steel pipe http://www.abtersteel.com/news/products-news/45-seamless-steel-pipe/ Tue, 26 Oct 2021 01:21:14 +0000 http://www.abtersteel.com/?p=6295 Production process of 45# seamless steel pipe The production process of 45# seamless steel pipe includes billet preparation before rolling, pipe billet heating, piercing, rolling, sizing and reduction, steel pipe cooling, steel pipe cutting head and tail, segmentation, straightening, flaw detection, manual inspection, and printing. , Bundle packaging and other basic processes. Nowadays, there are generally three main deformation processes in the production of hot-rolled seamless steel pipes: piercing, pipe rolling, and sizing and reducing. The respective process objectives and requirements are as follows. 1 perforation Perforation is to pierce a solid tube into a hollow capillary. The equipment is […]

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Production process of 45# seamless steel pipe
The production process of 45# seamless steel pipe includes billet preparation before rolling, pipe billet heating, piercing, rolling, sizing and reduction, steel pipe cooling, steel pipe cutting head and tail, segmentation, straightening, flaw detection, manual inspection, and printing. , Bundle packaging and other basic processes. Nowadays, there are generally three main deformation processes in the production of hot-rolled seamless steel pipes: piercing, pipe rolling, and sizing and reducing. The respective process objectives and requirements are as follows.
1 perforation
Perforation is to pierce a solid tube into a hollow capillary. The equipment is called a piercing machine: The requirements for the piercing process are:
(1) Ensure that the wall thickness of the capillary that passes through is uniform, the ovality is small, and the geometrical size accuracy is high;
(2) The inner and outer surface of the capillary tube is relatively smooth, and there must be no defects such as scars, folds, cracks, etc.;
(3) There must be corresponding piercing speed and rolling cycle to adapt to the production rhythm of the whole unit, so that the final rolling temperature of the capillary tube can meet the requirements of the tube rolling mill.
2 Rolled tube
The rolled tube is to press the perforated thick-walled capillary tube into a thin-walled waste tube to achieve the required thermal size and uniformity of the finished tube. That is, the wall thickness of the waste pipe in this process is determined according to the reduction amount of the subsequent process and the empirical formula to process the wall thickness. This equipment is called a pipe rolling mill. The requirements for the tube rolling process are: (1) When the thick-walled capillary tube is turned into a thin-walled waste tube (reduced wall extension), it is first necessary to ensure that the waste tube has a higher wall thickness uniformity;
(2) The waste pipe has good internal and external surface quality. The selection of the tube mill and the reasonable matching of its deformation with the piercing process are the key to determining the quality, output and technical and economic indicators of the unit.
3 Fixed diameter reduction (including tension reduction)
The main function of sizing and reducing is to eliminate the difference in the outer diameter of the waste pipe caused by the previous process of rolling, so as to improve the outer diameter accuracy and roundness of the hot-rolled finished pipe. Diameter reduction is to reduce the large pipe diameter to the required size and accuracy. Tension reduction is to reduce the diameter under the action of the front and rear frame tension, and reduce the wall at the same time. The equipment used for sizing and reducing is a sizing (reducing) machine. The requirements for the sizing and reducing process are:
(1) The purpose of sizing is achieved under the conditions of a certain total reduction rate and a smaller single frame reduction rate;
(2) It can realize the task of using one size tube blank to produce multiple specifications of finished tubes;
(3) Further improve the outer surface quality of the steel pipe.
At the end of the 1980s, there was a tendency to abolish the pipe rolling process and only use the process of piercing, adding and reducing diameters to produce seamless steel pipes, referred to as CPS (the English Cross-roll Piercing, Stretch —Reducing abbreviation), and conducted industrial tests at the Tosa plant in South Africa from March 1990 to July 1991, producing steel pipes with an outer diameter of φ33.4~φ179.8mm and a wall thickness of 3.4~25mm. The diameter is 101.6mm. Through practical tests, the quality of this process is acceptable when producing steel pipes with a wall thickness of more than 10mm. However, sizing and tension reduction cannot completely eliminate the spiral line of the perforated capillary when producing steel pipes with a wall thickness of less than 8mm, which affects the appearance quality of the steel pipe. .
45# seamless steel pipe heat treatment process
The current 45# seamless steel pipe surface heat treatment technology is constantly being innovated, and the current technology has developed more and more skilled, let’s take a look at several methods of 45# seamless steel pipe treatment.
1. Surface hardening:
The 45# seamless steel pipe is quickly heated by different heat sources. When the surface temperature of the part reaches above the critical point (at this time, the temperature of the 45# seamless pipe core is below the critical point), it is quickly cooled, so that the surface of the 45# seamless pipe The hardened structure is obtained while the heart remains the original structure. The most widely used in industry is induction heating and flame heating surface quenching.
2. Chemical heat treatment:
Place the 45# seamless pipe in a medium containing active elements for heating and heat preservation, so that the active atoms in the medium can penetrate into the surface of the 45# seamless steel pipe or form a covering layer of a certain compound to change the structure and chemical composition of the surface. Make the surface of the part have special mechanical or physical and chemical properties.
3. Contact resistance heating and quenching:
A voltage of less than 5 volts is applied to the 45# seamless tube through the electrode, and a large current flows at the contact between the electrode and the 45# seamless tube, and a large amount of resistance heat is generated, so that the surface of the 45# seamless tube is heated to After quenching the temperature, the electrode is removed, and the heat is transferred into the 45# seamless tube and the surface is cooled rapidly to achieve the purpose of quenching.
4. Electrolytic heating quenching:
Place the 45# seamless steel pipe in the electrolyte of acid, alkali or salt aqueous solution, connect the 45# seamless pipe to the cathode, and the electrolytic cell to the anode. After the direct current is connected, the electrolyte is electrolyzed, oxygen is released on the anode, and hydrogen is released on the 45# seamless tube. Hydrogen surrounds the 45# seamless pipe to form a gas film, which becomes a resistor body and generates heat. The surface of the 45# seamless steel pipe is quickly heated to the quenching temperature, and then the power is turned off. The gas film disappears immediately, and the electrolyte becomes the quenching medium, so that The surface of 45# seamless pipe is rapidly cooled and hardened.
5. Laser heat treatment:
The application research of laser in heat treatment began in the early 1970s, and then entered the production application stage from the laboratory research stage. When the focused high-energy density (10W/cm) laser irradiates the metal surface, the metal surface rises to the quenching temperature within a few hundredths of a second or even a few thousandths of a second.
The above heat treatment technologies are all relatively advanced technologies, and have greatly improved the performance requirements of 45# seamless steel pipes. The current development of the 45# seamless steel pipe market is getting better and better. I believe that the follow-up 45# The market for seam steel pipes will be even broader.

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Various common terms about steel http://www.abtersteel.com/news/products-news/various-common-terms-about-steel/ Wed, 20 Oct 2021 01:35:27 +0000 http://www.abtersteel.com/?p=6292 1. Standard Standards are unified regulations for repetitive things and concepts. It is based on the comprehensive results of science, technology, and practical experience, and is agreed upon by relevant parties, approved by the competent authority, and issued in a specific form as a standard and basis for mutual compliance. At present, the standards implemented by China’s steel products include national standards (CB, GB/T), industry standards (YB), local standards and corporate standards. 2. Technical conditions The various performance indicators and quality requirements that the product should meet in the standard are called technical conditions, such as chemical composition, external dimensions, […]

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1. Standard Standards are unified regulations for repetitive things and concepts. It is based on the comprehensive results of science, technology, and practical experience, and is agreed upon by relevant parties, approved by the competent authority, and issued in a specific form as a standard and basis for mutual compliance. At present, the standards implemented by China’s steel products include national standards (CB, GB/T), industry standards (YB), local standards and corporate standards.

2. Technical conditions The various performance indicators and quality requirements that the product should meet in the standard are called technical conditions, such as chemical composition, external dimensions, surface quality, physical properties, mechanical properties, process properties, internal organization, delivery status, etc.

3. Guarantee conditions According to the provisions of the technical conditions of metal materials, the manufacturer should conduct inspections and ensure that the inspection results meet the required performance, chemical composition, internal organization and other quality indicators, which are called guarantee conditions

(1) Basic guarantee conditions—also called compulsory guarantee conditions, refer to the items stipulated in the standard, regardless of whether the purchaser puts forward the requirements in the order contract, the manufacturer must carry out the inspection level to ensure that the inspection results meet the specified items

(2) Additional guarantee conditions are stipulated in the standard. As long as the purchaser specifies the requirements in the contract, the manufacturer must carry out inspections and ensure that the inspection results meet the specified items

(3) Agreement guarantee conditions — There is no stipulation in the standard, but the items guaranteed by the agreement between the supplier and the buyer and indicated in the contract are called the agreement guarantee conditions

(4) Reference conditions—the items proposed by the purchaser and inspected by agreement between the purchaser and the purchaser if there is no provision in the standard, or there is a provision without guarantee

4. Quality certificate The production of metal materials is different from the production of other industrial products. It is carried out in accordance with unified standards and regulations. The product factory inspection system is implemented, and unqualified metal materials are not allowed to be delivered. For the delivered metal materials, the manufacturer provides a quality certificate to ensure its quality. The quality certificate of the metal material not only states the name of the material, inkstone, number of pieces, weight, etc., but also provides all the inspection results of the specified guarantee items. The quality certificate confirms and guarantees the inspection results of the batch of products by the supplier. It is also the basis for re-inspection and use by the demander.

5. Quality grades The quality of steel is divided into several grades according to different requirements such as the surface quality, shape and size of the allowable deviation of the steel. For example, first-level products, second-level products,. Sometimes different levels are developed for a certain requirement. For example, the surface quality is divided into one, two, and three levels, and the depth of the surface decarburization layer is divided into one group and two groups, etc., all of which indicate the difference in quality

6. Accuracy level Some metal materials. The standard stipulates that there are several allowable size deviations, and according to the size of the allowable deviations, they are divided into several grades, called accuracy grades. According to the allowable deviation, the accuracy level is divided into ordinary accuracy, higher accuracy, advanced accuracy, etc. The higher the accuracy level, the smaller the allowable dimensional deviation. When ordering, please note that the accuracy level requirements should be written into the relevant documents such as the contract

7. Brand The brand of a metal material is the name given to each specific metal material. Steel grades are also called steel grades. The grades of metal materials in China can generally reflect the chemical composition. The grade not only indicates the specific variety of the metal material, but also can roughly judge its quality based on it. In this way, the grades simply provide a common concept of specific metal material quality, which brings great convenience to production, use and management.

8. Varieties Varieties of metal materials refer to products with different uses, shapes, production processes, heat treatment conditions, particle sizes, etc.

9. Model The model number of metal materials refers to the code of different shapes and types of profiles, cemented carbide and other products with Chinese Pinyin (or Latin) letters and one or several numbers. The number indicates the nominal size of the main part

10. Specifications Specifications refer to different sizes of metal materials of the same type or model. The general size is different, and its allowable deviation is also different. In product standards, the specifications of varieties are usually arranged in order from small to large

11. The surface state is mainly divided into two types: bright and non-bright. Common in steel wire and steel strip standards, the main difference is whether to use bright annealing or general annealing. It also treats polishing, polishing, pickling, plating, etc. as surface conditions

12. Edge state The edge state refers to whether the strip is trimmed or not. Edge trimming is trimmed strip, and un trimmed is untrimmed strip.

13. Delivery status The delivery status refers to the final plastic deformation processing or final heat treatment status of the product delivery. Delivery without heat treatment includes hot-rolled (forged) and cold-rolled conditions. After normalizing, annealing, high temperature tempering, quenching and tempering, and solid solution treatment, they are collectively referred to as heat treatment delivery, or according to the heat treatment category respectively normalizing, annealing, high temperature tempering, quenching and tempering, etc.

14. The degree of hardness of the material refers to the degree of hardness of the steel obtained with different heat treatment or work hardening. In some strip steel standards, it is divided into extra-soft steel strips, soft steel strips, semi-soft steel strips, low-hard steel strips and hard steel strips.

15. Longitudinal and horizontal The vertical and horizontal referred to in the steel standard. Both refer to the relative relationship with the rolling (forging) and drawing directions. Those parallel to the processing direction are called longitudinal; those perpendicular to the processing direction are called transverse. The samples taken along the processing direction are called longitudinal samples; the samples taken perpendicular to the processing direction are called transverse samples. The fracture on the longitudinal sample is perpendicular to the rolling direction, so it is called the transverse fracture; the fracture on the transverse sample is parallel to the processing direction, so it is called the longitudinal fracture.

16. Theoretical quality and actual quality These are two different methods of calculating delivery quality. According to the theoretical quality, the delivery quality is calculated according to the subdivision size and density of the material. If the delivery is based on the actual quality, it is the delivery quality obtained by weighing (weighing) the material

17. Nominal size and actual size Nominal size refers to the nominal size specified in the standard, which is the ideal size expected in the production process. However, in actual production, the actual size of steel is often larger or smaller than the nominal size. The actual size obtained is called the actual size.

18. Deviations and tolerances Since it is difficult to reach the nominal size in actual production, the standard stipulates that there is an allowable difference between the actual size and the nominal size, which is called deviation. The difference is a negative value called a negative deviation, and a positive value is called a positive deviation. The sum of absolute values ​​of allowable positive and negative deviations specified in the standard is called tolerance. The deviation is directional. That is to say “positive” or “negative”, the tolerance has no directionality

19. Delivery length There are four provisions in the current standard for the delivery length of steel:

(1) Normal length—double-scale indefinite length. Any steel material whose length is within the range specified by the standard and has no fixed length is called normal length. However, for the convenience of packaging, transportation and measurement, when each company cuts steel, it is best to cut the steel into several different lengths according to the situation, and strive to avoid random size.

(2) Cut-to-length length—the fixed-length cut according to the order requirements (the fixed-length of the steel plate refers to the width and length) is called the fixed-length length. For example, the fixed-length is 5m, and the length of a batch of delivered steel is 5m. But in fact, it is impossible to all be 5m long, so the allowable positive deviation value is also specified

(3) Length of double ruler — The length of the single ruler according to the order requirements is cut into integer multiples equal to the length of the order single rule, called the double ruler length. For example, the length of the single ruler is 950mm, then it is cut into double ruler 1900mm, triple ruler is 950*3=2850mm, etc.

(4) Any length less than the normal length in the standard is not limited, but not less than the minimum allowable length, it is called short-length length 20. The smelting method refers to the type of steelmaking furnace used for smelting, such as open hearth, electric arc furnace, and electroslag furnace. , Vacuum induction furnace and mixed steelmaking and other smelting. The meaning of the term “smelting method” in the standard does not include the concepts of deoxidation methods (such as fully deoxidized killed steel, semi-deoxidized semi-killed steel, and rimmed steel) and casting methods (such as upper betting, lower betting, continuous casting).

21. Chemical composition (product composition) refers to the chemical composition of steel products, including main components and impurity elements, and its content is expressed as a percentage by weight

22. Melting composition The smelting composition of steel refers to the chemical composition in the middle of pouring after the steel is smelted (such as deoxidation in the tank)

23. Finished product composition The finished product composition of steel, also called verification analysis composition, refers to the chemical obtained by drilling or planing test chips from the finished steel according to the prescribed method (see GB/T222) and analyzing it according to the determined standard method. Element. The finished composition of steel is mainly used by the user department or the inspection department for the acceptance of the steel. Manufacturers generally do not perform finished product analysis, but they should ensure that the composition of the finished product meets the standard requirements. For some major products, or sometimes due to some reasons (such as process changes, unstable quality, melting composition close to the upper and lower limits, melting analysis failed to get, etc.), the production plant also does finished product composition analysis

24. High-quality steel and high-quality steel (with A letter) are also called high-quality steel and high-quality steel. The difference is that high-quality steel is superior to high-quality steel in some or all of the following aspects:

① Reduce the carbon content range;

②Reduce the content of harmful impurities (mainly phosgene and phosphorus);

③Ensure high purity (referring to the content of inclusions);

④ Ensure high mechanical properties and process performance.

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General term for steel pipe http://www.abtersteel.com/news/products-news/general-term-for-steel-pipe/ Fri, 15 Oct 2021 01:41:16 +0000 http://www.abtersteel.com/?p=6288 General term   ①Delivery status    refers to the final plastic deformation or final heat treatment state of the delivered product. Generally, those delivered without heat treatment are called hot-rolled or cold-drawn (rolled) state or manufacturing state; those delivered after heat treatment are called heat-treated state, or normalized (normalized), quenched and tempered, solution, annealed according to the type of heat treatment state. When ordering, the delivery status must be indicated in the contract.   ②Delivery according to actual weight or theoretical weight    Actual weight-when delivered, the weight of the product is delivered according to the weighed (weighed) weight;   Theoretical weight-at the […]

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General term
  ①Delivery status
   refers to the final plastic deformation or final heat treatment state of the delivered product. Generally, those delivered without heat treatment are called hot-rolled or cold-drawn (rolled) state or manufacturing state; those delivered after heat treatment are called heat-treated state, or normalized (normalized), quenched and tempered, solution, annealed according to the type of heat treatment state. When ordering, the delivery status must be indicated in the contract.
  ②Delivery according to actual weight or theoretical weight
   Actual weight-when delivered, the weight of the product is delivered according to the weighed (weighed) weight;
  Theoretical weight-at the time of delivery, the weight of the product is the weight calculated according to the nominal size of the steel. The calculation formula is as follows (if delivery is required according to the theoretical weight, it must be indicated in the contract):
  Theoretical weight of steel pipe per meter (the density of steel is 7.85kg/dm3) calculation formula:
  W=0.02466(D-S)S
  In the formula: W–theoretical weight of steel pipe per meter, kg/m;
  D–the nominal outer diameter of the steel pipe, mm;
  S–the nominal wall thickness of the steel pipe, mm.
  ③Guarantee conditions
   Perform inspections according to the stipulated items of the current standard and ensure compliance with the stipulations of the standard, which is called the guarantee condition. The guarantee conditions are divided into:
  A. Basic guarantee conditions (also known as compulsory guarantee conditions). Regardless of whether the customer indicates in the contract. It is necessary to carry out the inspection according to the standard and ensure that the inspection result meets the standard.
  Such as chemical composition, mechanical properties, dimensional deviation, surface quality, and process performance tests such as flaw detection, hydraulic test or flattening or flaring are all required conditions.
B. Agreement guarantee conditions: In addition to the basic guarantee conditions in the standard, there are also “according to the requirements of the buyer, after negotiation between the supplier and the buyer, and note in the contract?” or “When the buyer requires…, it should be noted in the contract Some customers put forward stricter requirements (such as composition, mechanical properties, dimensional deviation, etc.) or additional inspection items (such as steel pipe ovality, uneven wall thickness, etc.) for the basic guarantee conditions in the standard. The above clauses and requirements, When ordering, both parties negotiate, sign the technical supply agreement and indicate in the contract. Therefore, these conditions are also called the agreement guarantee conditions. Products with the agreement guarantee conditions generally require a price increase.
  ④ batch
  The “batch” in the standard refers to an inspection unit, that is, an inspection lot. If the batch is grouped by the delivery unit, it is called the delivery batch. When the delivery lot is large, one delivery lot can include several inspection lots; when the delivery lot is small, one inspection lot can be divided into several delivery lots.
   The composition of “batch” usually has the following requirements (see relevant standards for details):
  A. Each batch should be composed of steel pipes of the same brand (steel grade), the same furnace (tank) number or the same parent furnace number, the same specification and the same heat treatment system (heat).
   B. For high-quality carbon steel structural pipes and fluid pipes, it can be composed of steel pipes of the same brand, same specification and the same heat treatment system (heat) of different furnaces (tanks).
   C, each batch of welded steel pipes should be composed of steel pipes of the same brand (steel grade) and the same specification.
  ⑤High-quality steel and high-quality steel
   In the standards of GB/T699-1999 and GB/T3077-1999, those with “A” after their grades are high-grade high-quality steels, otherwise they are general high-quality steels.
  High quality steel is superior to high quality steel in some or all of the following:
  A, narrow the range of ingredient content;
  B, reduce the content of harmful elements (such as sulfur, phosphorus, copper);
  C, to ensure high purity (requires less non-metallic inclusions);
  D, to ensure high mechanical properties and process performance.
  ⑥Vertical and horizontal
   According to the standard, the longitudinal direction refers to those parallel to the processing direction (that is, along the processing direction); the transverse direction refers to the perpendicular to the processing direction (the processing direction is the axial direction of the steel pipe).
   When doing the impact energy test, the fracture of the longitudinal specimen is perpendicular to the processing direction. Therefore, it is called the transverse fracture; the fracture of the transverse sample is parallel to the processing direction, so it is called the longitudinal fracture.

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Stainless Steel Pipe for CORINTO Client http://www.abtersteel.com/project/stainless-steel-pipe-for-corinto-client/ Wed, 13 Oct 2021 05:20:25 +0000 http://www.abtersteel.com/?p=6276 Stainless steel pipes are divided into ordinary carbon steel pipes, high-quality carbon structural steel pipes, alloy structural pipes, alloy steel pipes, bearing steel pipes, stainless steel pipes, and bimetal composite pipes, plating and coating pipes to save precious metals and meet special requirements. . There are many types of stainless steel pipes, their uses are different, their technical requirements are different, and their production methods are also different. The currently produced steel pipes have an outer diameter range of 0.1-4500mm and a wall thickness range of 0.01-250mm. In order to distinguish its characteristics, steel pipes are usually classified as follows. […]

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Stainless steel pipes are divided into ordinary carbon steel pipes, high-quality carbon structural steel pipes, alloy structural pipes, alloy steel pipes, bearing steel pipes, stainless steel pipes, and bimetal composite pipes, plating and coating pipes to save precious metals and meet special requirements. . There are many types of stainless steel pipes, their uses are different, their technical requirements are different, and their production methods are also different. The currently produced steel pipes have an outer diameter range of 0.1-4500mm and a wall thickness range of 0.01-250mm. In order to distinguish its characteristics, steel pipes are usually classified as follows.
ways to produce
Stainless steel pipes are divided into seamless pipes and welded pipes according to the production method. Seamless steel pipes can be divided into hot-rolled pipes, cold-rolled pipes, cold-drawn pipes and extruded pipes. Cold-drawn and cold-rolled are the secondary types of steel pipes. Processing; welded pipe is divided into straight seam welded pipe and spiral welded pipe.
Section shape
Stainless steel pipes can be divided into round pipes and special-shaped pipes according to the cross-sectional shape. Special-shaped tubes include rectangular tubes, rhombus tubes, oval tubes, hexagonal tubes, octagonal tubes, and various asymmetrical cross-section tubes. Special-shaped tubes are widely used in various structural parts, tools and mechanical parts. Compared with round pipes, special-shaped pipes generally have larger moments of inertia and section modulus, and have greater resistance to bending and torsion, which can greatly reduce structural weight and save steel.
Stainless steel pipes can be divided into equal-section pipes and variable-section pipes according to the shape of the longitudinal section. Variable section tubes include tapered tubes, stepped tubes and periodic section tubes.
Tube end shape
Stainless steel pipes can be divided into smooth pipes and threaded pipes (threaded steel pipes) according to the state of the pipe ends. The threaded pipe can be divided into ordinary threaded pipe (pipes for conveying water, gas and other low pressure, which are connected by ordinary cylindrical or tapered pipes) and special threaded pipes (pipes for petroleum and geological drilling. For important threaded pipes, use Special thread connection). For some special pipes, in order to compensate for the influence of the thread on the strength of the pipe end, the pipe end is usually thickened (internal thickening, external thickening or internal and external thickening) before turning the wire.
Use classification
According to the purpose, it can be divided into oil well pipes (casing, tubing and drill pipes, etc.), line pipes, boiler pipes, mechanical structure pipes, hydraulic prop pipes, gas cylinder pipes, geological pipes, chemical pipes (high pressure fertilizer pipes, petroleum cracking pipes, etc.) ) And ship pipes.
Production
Stainless steel welded pipe production process:
Raw material-slitting-welding pipe-trimming-polishing-inspection (spray printing)-packaging-shipping (warehouse) (decorative welded pipe).
Raw material–Slitting–Welding pipe–Heat treatment–Straightening–Straightening–End trimming–Pickling–Hydraulic pressure test–Inspection (printing)–Packaging–shipping (warehousing) (Pipe for industrial piping of welded pipe).

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Carbon Seamless Pipes for DURBAN Client http://www.abtersteel.com/project/carbon-seamless-pipes-for-durban-client/ Wed, 13 Oct 2021 05:11:10 +0000 http://www.abtersteel.com/?p=6273 Seamless carbonsteel pipe is a capillary tube made of steel ingots or solid tube blanks through perforation, and then made by hot rolling, cold rolling or cold drawing. Seamless carbon steel pipes have an important position in my country’s steel pipe industry. According to incomplete statistics, there are more than 240 seamless carbon steel pipe production enterprises in my country, and more than 250 seamless carbon steel pipe units, with an annual production capacity of about 4.5 million tons. In terms of caliber, those with <φ76 accounted for 35%, and those with <φ159-650 accounted for 25%. In terms of varieties, […]

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Seamless carbonsteel pipe is a capillary tube made of steel ingots or solid tube blanks through perforation, and then made by hot rolling, cold rolling or cold drawing. Seamless carbon steel pipes have an important position in my country’s steel pipe industry. According to incomplete statistics, there are more than 240 seamless carbon steel pipe production enterprises in my country, and more than 250 seamless carbon steel pipe units, with an annual production capacity of about 4.5 million tons. In terms of caliber, those with <φ76 accounted for 35%, and those with <φ159-650 accounted for 25%. In terms of varieties, general purpose pipes are 1.9 million tons, accounting for 54%; oil pipes are 760,000 tons, accounting for 5.7%; hydraulic props and precision pipes are 150,000 tons, accounting for 4.3%; stainless pipes, bearing pipes, and automotive pipes total 50,000 Tons, accounting for 1.4%.
The raw material of the seamless carbon steel pipe is a round tube blank, which is cut by a cutting machine into a blank of about 1 meter in length, and then sent to the furnace for heating via a conveyor belt. The billet is fed into the furnace and heated at a temperature of approximately 1200 degrees Celsius. The fuel is hydrogen or acetylene. The temperature control in the furnace is a key issue. After the round tube billet is out of the furnace, it is pierced through a pressure piercing machine. Generally, the more common piercing machine is the tapered roller piercing machine. This type of piercing machine has high production efficiency, good product quality, large perforation diameter expansion, and can wear a variety of steel types. After piercing, the round tube billet is cross-rolled, continuous rolled or extruded by three rolls one after another. After squeezing, take off the tube and calibrate. The sizing machine uses a tapered drill bit to rotate at a high speed into the steel blank to punch holes to form a steel pipe. The inner diameter of the steel pipe is determined by the length of the outer diameter of the drill bit of the sizing machine. After the steel pipe is sized, it enters the cooling tower and is cooled by spraying water. After the steel pipe is cooled, it will be straightened. After straightening, the steel pipe is sent to the metal flaw detector (or hydraulic test) by the conveyor belt for internal flaw detection. If there are cracks, bubbles, etc. inside the steel pipe, it will be detected. After the quality inspection of steel pipes, strict manual selection is required. After the quality inspection of the steel pipe, paint the serial number, specification, production batch number, etc. with paint. It is hoisted into the warehouse by a crane.
Seamless steel pipes are divided into hot-rolled (extruded) seamless steel pipes and cold-drawn (rolled) seamless steel pipes due to their different manufacturing processes. Cold drawn (rolled) tubes are divided into two types: round tubes and special-shaped tubes. Seamless steel pipes are divided into the following varieties due to their different uses:
1. Seamless steel pipe for structure (GBT8162-2008). Mainly used for general structure and mechanical structure. Its representative materials (brands): carbon steel, 20, 45 steel; alloy steel Q345, 20Cr, 40Cr, 20CrMo, 30-35CrMo, 42CrMo, etc.
2. Seamless steel pipe for conveying fluid (GBT8163-2008). Mainly used in engineering and large-scale equipment to transport fluid pipelines. The representative material (brand) is 20, Q345, etc.
3. Seamless steel pipes for low and medium pressure boilers (GB3087-2008) are used to manufacture superheated steam pipes, boiling water pipes for low and medium pressure boilers of various structures, and superheated steam pipes for locomotive boilers, large smoke pipes, small smoke pipes and arch bricks. High-quality carbon structural steel hot-rolled and cold-drawn (rolled) seamless steel pipes for pipes. Representative materials are 10 and 20 steel.
4. Seamless steel pipes for high-pressure boilers (GB5310-2008) are high-quality carbon steel, alloy steel and stainless heat-resistant steel seamless steel pipes for the heating surface of water-tube boilers with high pressure and above. Representative materials are 20G, 12Cr1MoVG, 15CrMoG, etc.
5. Seamless steel pipes for high-pressure fertilizer equipment (GB6479-2000) are high-quality carbon structural steel and alloy steel seamless steel pipes suitable for chemical equipment and pipelines with a working temperature of -40 to 400 ℃ and a working pressure of 10 to 30 Ma. Representative materials are 20, 16Mn, 12CrMo, 12Cr2Mo, etc.
6. Seamless steel pipes for petroleum cracking (GB9948-2006). Mainly used in boilers, heat exchangers and fluid pipelines of petroleum smelters. Its representative materials are 20, 12CrMo, 1Cr5Mo, 1Cr19Ni11Nb, etc.
7. Steel pipes for geological drilling (YB235-70) are steel pipes used for core drilling by geological departments. They can be divided into drill pipes, drill collars, core pipes, casing pipes and sedimentation pipes according to their purposes.
8. Seamless steel pipes for diamond core drilling (GB3423-82) are seamless steel pipes for drill pipes, core rods, and casings used for diamond core drilling.
9. Petroleum drilling pipe (YB528-65) is a seamless steel pipe used for thickening inside or outside at both ends of oil drilling. There are two types of steel pipes: wire and non-wired. Wired pipes are connected by joints, and non-wired pipes are connected with tool joints by butt welding.
10. Carbon steel and carbon-manganese steel seamless steel pipes for ships (GB/5312-1999) are carbon steel seamless steel pipes used in the manufacture of Class I pressure piping systems, Class II pressure piping systems, boilers and superheaters. The working temperature of the carbon steel seamless steel pipe wall does not exceed 450℃, and the working temperature of the alloy steel seamless steel pipe wall exceeds 450℃. Representative materials are 360, 410, 460 steel grades, etc.
11. Seamless steel tubes for automobile axle sleeves (GB3088-82) are high-quality carbon structural steel and alloy structural steel hot-rolled seamless steel tubes for the manufacture of automobile axle sleeves and drive axle axle tubes.
12. High-pressure oil pipes for diesel engines (GB3093-86) are cold-drawn seamless steel pipes used in the manufacture of high-pressure pipes for diesel engine injection systems.
13. Precision inner diameter seamless steel pipes for hydraulic and pneumatic cylinders (GB8713-88) are cold-drawn or cold-rolled precision seamless steel pipes with precise inner diameters for the manufacture of hydraulic and pneumatic cylinders.
14. Cold-drawn or cold-rolled precision seamless steel pipe (GB3639-83) is a cold-drawn or cold-rolled precision seamless steel pipe with high dimensional accuracy and good surface finish for mechanical structures and hydraulic equipment. Choosing precision seamless steel pipes to manufacture mechanical structures or hydraulic equipment can greatly save machining man-hours, improve material utilization, and at the same time help improve product quality.
1 5. Structural stainless steel seamless steel pipe (GB/T14975-2002) is a hot-rolled stainless steel made of corrosion-resistant pipes and structural parts and parts widely used in the chemical, petroleum, textile, medical, food, machinery and other industries. (Extruded, expanded) and cold drawn (rolled) seamless steel tubes.
16. Stainless steel seamless steel pipes for fluid transportation (GB/T14976-2002) are hot-rolled (extruded, expanded) and cold-drawn (rolled) seamless steel pipes made of stainless steel used to transport fluids.
17. Special-shaped seamless steel pipe is a general term for seamless steel pipes with cross-sectional shapes other than round pipes. According to the different shape and size of the steel pipe section, it can be divided into equal-thickness special-shaped seamless steel pipe (code D), unequal-thickness special-shaped seamless steel pipe (code BD), and variable diameter special-shaped seamless steel pipe (code BJ). Special-shaped seamless steel pipes are widely used in various structural parts, tools and machines.
Mechanical parts. Compared with round pipes, special-shaped pipes generally have larger moments of inertia and section modulus, and have greater bending and torsion resistance, which can greatly reduce structural weight and save steel.
18. Seamless steel pipes for gas cylinders (GB18248-2000). Mainly used to make various gas and hydraulic cylinders. Its representative materials are 37Mn, 34Mn2V, 35CrMo, etc.
In addition, there are GB/T17396-1998 (hot-rolled seamless steel pipes for hydraulic props), GB3093-1986 (high-pressure seamless steel pipes for diesel engines), GB/T3639-1983 (cold drawn or cold-rolled precision seamless steel pipes), GB /T3094-1986 (cold drawn seamless steel pipe special-shaped steel pipe), GB/T8713-1988 (precision inner diameter seamless steel pipe for hydraulic and pneumatic cylinders), GB13296-1991 (stainless steel seamless steel pipe for boilers and heat exchangers), GB/T14975 -2002 (Stainless steel seamless steel pipe for structural use), GB/T14976-2002 (Stainless steel seamless steel pipe for fluid transportation), GB/T5035-1993 (Seamless steel pipe for automobile half-shaft casing), API SPEC5CT-1999 (casing and tubing) Specification) etc.

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